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Download this complete Project material titled; Production And Performance Evaluation Of Biodiesel From Hibiscus Sabdariffa And Hibiscus Surattensis with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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This work investigated the viability of using locally available vegetable seed oils
to produce biodiesel. Two indigenous seeds- Hibiscus Surattensis (Hausa-rahma)
and Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Hausa-yakwua) were used to carry out the research.
Biodiesel from oils derived from these seeds were produced by alkali catalyzed
transesterification process. The physicochemical properties of the oils (such as
viscosity, flash point, calorific value, relative density, acid value, ash content,
carbon content, saponification value, iodine value and hydrogen content) and
various blending ratios of biodiesel with diesel obtained from oils of these seeds
were investigated and compared with standard diesel fuel. The methyl esters of
the samples were comparatively analysed based on their performance
characteristics in blends of 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50 using a Leyland Compression
Ignition Engine coupled to a hydro-dynamometer. Parameters like speed of
engine and fuel consumption were measured at different loads for pure diesel and
various combinations of biodiesel blends. Torque, brake horse power and specific
fuel consumption were calculated. The test results indicate that the biodiesel
blends of 40:60 for H. Sabdariffa has Brake horse power- 12.44kW, Speed-
2000rpm, and SFC 0.118 l /kW hr and; 30:70 for H. Surattensis has Brake horse
power- 13.78kW, Speed-2000rpm, and SFC-0.332 l/kW hr while Diesel has
Brake horse power- 10kW, Speed-2000rpm, and SFC-0.193 l/kW hr. Both H.
Sabdariffa at 40:60 blend and H. Surattensis at 30:70 blend have brake horse
power and SFC higher than diesel at the speed of 2000rpm hence H. Sabdariffa
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blend of 40:60 and H. Surattensis blend of 30:70 blend can be recommended for
use in diesel engines without making any engine modifications.



Cover Page———————————————————————————————i
Table of Contents———————————————————————————–vii
List of Figures—————————————————————————————xii
List of Tables—————————————————————————————xiii
List of Plates—————————————————————————————–xv
List of Appendices———————————————————————————xvi
1.0 Background—————————————————————————————1
1.1 Statement of Research Problem—————————————————————-2
1.2 Present Research———————————————————————————3
1.3 Significance of Research————————————————————————3
1.4 Objective——————————————————————————————4
1.5 Justification—————————————————————————————5
1.6 Methodology————————————————————————————-6
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1.7 Scope———————————————————————————————-6
2.0 Historical Background of Biodiesel———————————————————–7
2.1 Review Past Work in the Area—————————————————————12
2.2 Ways of Running Diesel Engine with Biofuel ———————————————14
2.2.1 Mixing it ————————————————————————————–15
2.2.2 Straight Vegetable Oil ———————————————————————-16
2.2.3 Biodiesel or SVO? ————————————————————————–17
2.3 Definition and Theory of Combustion Engine ——————————————–18
2.3.1 Engines —————————————————————————————18 The Internal Combustion Engine ——————————————————-18 External Combustion Engine ————————————————————18
2.3.2 Compression Ignition Engine ————————————————————–18
2.4 Performance Criteria for Internal Combustion Engine ———————————–20
2.4.1 Indicated Power (ip) ————————————————————————21
2.4.2 Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (Pi) —————————————————22
2.4.3 Brake Power (bp) —————————————————————————-22
2.4.4 Brake Mean Effective Pressure (bmep) ————————————————–23
3.4.5 Friction Power (fp) ————————————————————————–23
2.4.6 Mechanical Efficiency (􀟟􀯠) —————————————————————23
2.4.7 Brake Thermal Efficiency (􀟟􀮻􀯍) and Indicated Thermal Efficiency (􀟟􀯂􀯍) ———-24
2.4.8 Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) and Volumetric Efficiency ———————–24
– 10 –
2.5 Transesterification —————————————————————————–25
2.5.1 General Aspects of Transesterification ————————————————–25
2.5.2 Transesterification of Vegetable Oils —————————————————–26 Acid – Catalyzed Processes ————————————————————–27 Base –Catalyzed Processes ————————————————————–29
2.6 Brief Description of the Seed Plants ——————————————————–31
2.6.1 Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. ———————————————————————-31
2.6.2 Hibiscus Surattensis ————————————————————————33
2.7 Description of Oil Extractor ——————————————————————34
2.8 Test Engine ————————————————————————————-38
3.0 Introduction ————————————————————————————-40
3.1 Equipment Used ——————————————————————————-40
3.1.1 Determination of Physicochemical Properties ——————————————40 Viscosity ———————————————————————————–40 Relative Density —————————————————————————40 Calorific Value —————————————————————————-40 Flash Point ———————————————————————————40 Acid Value ———————————————————————————40 Saponification Value ———————————————————————41 Ash Content ——————————————————————————-41 Carbon Content —————————————————————————-41
– 11 – Iodine Value/ Number ——————————————————————–41 Hydrogen Value ————————————————————————-41
3.1.2 Oil Extractor ———————————————————————————41
3.1.3 Transesterification —————————————————————————42
3.2 Seed Collection———————————————————————————42
3.3 Method of Extraction of Oil ——————————————————————42
3.3.1 Oil Yield of Seeds —————————————————————————42
3.4 Physico-Chemical Characterization ———————————————————43
3.4.1 Viscosity ————————————————————————————–43
3.4.2 Flash Point ———————————————————————————–43
3.4.3 Calorific Value ——————————————————————————-44
3.4.4 Relative Density —————————————————————————–44
3.4.5 Acid Value ———————————————————————————–44
3.4.6 Ash Content ———————————————————————————-44
3.4.7 Carbon Content ——————————————————————————45
3.4.8 Saponification Value ————————————————————————45
3.4.9 Iodine Value ———————————————————————————45
3.4.10 Hydrogen Content ————————————————————————-45
3.5 Methyl Ester Preparation (Transesterification) ——————————————–59
3.6 Diesel Fuels and Blend ———————————————————————–59
3.7 Experimentation——————————————————————————–60
3.7.1 Procedure for Engine Performance Test————————————————–60
3.8 Experimental Calculations——————————————————————–61
– 12 –
4.0 Introduction————————————————————————————-66
4.1 Discussion OF Results————————————————————————-81
4.1.1 Viscosity—————————————————————————————81
4.1.2 Torque—————————————————————————————–81
4.1.3 Brake Horse Power————————————————————————–82
4.1.4 Fuel Consumption—————————————————————————-82
4.1.5 Specific Fuel Consumption—————————————————————–83
4.2 Cost Implication——————————————————————————–83
5.0 Summary—————————————————————————————-84
5.1 Conclusion————————————————————————————–85
5.2 Recommendation——————————————————————————-86
– 13 –




Energy is central to sustainable development and poverty reduction efforts. It affects all
aspects of development – social, economic, and environmental – including livelihoods,
access to water, agricultural productivity, health, population levels, education, and
gender-related issues. The United Nation Millennium Summit identified the most
pressing global development needs. These were called Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) which were unanimously adopted by the international community in 2000.These
MDGs are a list of human development objectives to be achieved by 2015 (UNDP,
2000). These goals include: poverty alleviation, universal basic education for all,
promotion of gender equality and empowering of women, improved health conditions
and environmental sustainability. None of the MDGs can be met without major
improvement in the quality and quantity of energy services in developing countries.
UNDP’s efforts in energy for sustainable development support the achievement of the
MDGs, especially MDG1, reducing by half the proportion of people living in poverty by
2015 (UNDP, 2000).
The present study is a research set out to investigate the viability of using some locally
sourced vegetable seeds to produce biodiesel or methyl ester from the oils extracted from
these local seeds. Different indigenous seeds namely: Hibiscus Surattensis and Hibiscus
Sabdiraffa seeds were used to carry out the research work. The physicochemical
properties of the biodiesel obtained from the oil of these seeds were investigated and
– 21 –
compared with standard diesel fuels. The fuels were used to run a diesel engine and the
performance of the Diesel Engine was observed.
1. Nigeria today is possibly facing the worst energy crisis ever to befall this nation.
The country, by the government’s admission, imports about 70% of refined fuel needed
for domestic consumption. Despite the award of licenses to several private firms to build
refineries, absolutely no investor has committed a farthing to construction (This Day
Newspaper, 2007).
2. Numerous studies indicated that oil sources in the world will come to an end. As a
result, new alternative energy sources will be required to substitute for Fossil diesel
(Yücesu et al., 2006).
3. Due to rising dangers from the ongoing build up of human-related greenhouse gases
produced mainly by the burning of fossil fuels and forests, it has become necessary to
develop alternative fuels that will be environmental friendly.
A possible solution to a potential future energy shortage would be to use some of the
world’s remaining fossil fuel reserves as an investment in renewable energy
infrastructure such as wind power, solar power, tidal power, geothermal power,
hydropower, methanol, ethanol and biodiesel, or in an oil lamp; olive oil, canola oil,
safflower oil, or sunflower oil which do not suffer from finite energy reserve but do not
– 22 –
have finite energy flow. The construction of sufficiently large renewable energy
infrastructure might avoid the economic consequences of an extended period of decline in
fossil fuel energy supply per capita.
The present study is a research set out to investigate the viability of using some locally
sourced vegetable seeds to produce biodiesel or methyl ester from the oils extracted from
these local seeds. Different indigenous seeds namely: Hibiscus Surattensis and Hibiscus
Sabdiraffa seeds were used to carry out the research work. The physicochemical
properties of the biodiesel obtained from the oil of these seeds were investigated and
compared with standard diesel fuels. The fuels were used to run a diesel engine and the
performance of the Diesel Engine was observed.
The use of renewable fuels on a more significant scale than at present would reduce
dependence on fossil fuels, thereby reducing the associated environmental impacts.
Biodiesel, a renewable energy source, could supplement the energy needs of the
economy, with relatively minimal impact on to the environment.
Recent survey has indicated that with the present rate of energy consumption, there is
combined decline in quantity of crude petroleum which serves as source for diesel oil
– 23 –
production. Moreover, the rate of discovery of petroleum deposits is not proportional to
the rate of consumption (George, 2005).
Through its environmental relations, the immediate and past impact effect of oil spillage
and pollution has done much to destroy the live of the communities, vegetation and
aquatic lives (George, 2005).
Also, Biodiesel improves lubricity and reduces premature wearing of diesel engine fuel
pumps (Schumacher and Howell, 1994).
The above mentioned problems and other facts, necessitate further research or rather
awakened new interest for vegetable oil improvement as alternative source. This potential
energy source is renewable. It could reduce risk of unavailability of fossil diesel and
could to a large extend reduce pollution effects resulting from their waste. Furthermore,
there is no doubt that this will boost agriculture as more seeds will be required. A greater
percentage of the populace live in the rural areas and as they cultivate these crops as raw
materials for Biodiesel production, it will boost their economic power and poverty will be
reduced thereby helping to achieve one of the MDGs.
The aim of this work is to establish the possibility of using Hibiscus Surattensis and
Hibiscus Sabdariffa methyl esters as alternative fuels in diesel engine. The specific
objectives are:
i. to investigate the physicochemical properties of vegetable oils from Hibiscus
– 24 –
Surattensis and Hibiscus Sabdariffa seeds.
ii. to convert the oils to biodiesel by the process of transesterification, and then compare
their physicochemical properties with those of petroleum- based diesel.
iii. to test the performance of the biodiesel from these oils at various blend ratios with
diesel using the Leyland Compression Ignition Engine.
iv. to establish the optimum blend of the biodiesel.
In the year 2000, there were about eight million vehicles around the world that ran on
alternative fuels, indicating sustainability (Fight Global Warming, 2007).
The major environmental concern, according to an Intergovernmental Panel of Climate
Change (IPCC) report, is that “most of the observed increase in globally averaged
temperatures since the mid-20th century in due to the observed increase in anthropogenic
greenhouse gas concentration” which is due to burning of fossil fuels (National Energy
Information Center 2004).
Another concern is the peak oil theory, which predicts a rising cost of oil derived fuels
caused by severe shortage of oil during an era of growing energy consumption. The
demand for oil will exceed supply and this gap will continue to grow, which could cause
a growing energy crisis starting between 2010 and 2020 (Hirsch, 2006).
Economic consideration- According to survey carried out in the US, biodieselers (people
who brew biodiesel domestically) using waste oil feedstock make biodiesel for 50 cents
– 25 –
to US $1 per US gallon (http://journeytoforever.org). It still went further to report that
most people in the US use about 600 gallon of fuel a year (about 10 gallon a week),
costing about US$1,800 a year (mid-2007). Petro-diesel costs about three times more in
the other industrialized countries (in UK in mid-2007 it cost the equivalent of US$7.37
for a US gallon of Petro-diesel) but those countries generally use less fuel than the US.
This means that biodieselers will be paying $300-360 for their fuel
This has to do with the methods used and the procedures adopted to extract each of the
oils: the seeds collection, extraction of oils, their physicochemical properties,
Transesterification, and experimentation based on the application of these samples in the
diesel engine to test their performance characteristics.
The present work compares the performance of various biodiesels with fossil diesel using
a Leyland four stroke Compression Ignition Engine (CIE) coupled to a hydro
dynamometer. The goal of this work is also to determine the physicochemical properties
of the vegetable oils and the biodiesel obtained from the oils which were then compared
with that of standard petrol diesel. The performance will determine the suitability of these
biodiesel fuels for use in a diesel engine.


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