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ABSTRACT

Steel fibre mortar and concrete are composite materials made with introduction of steel
fibres into cement-based materials within certain percentage of fibre. Steel fibre mortar and
concrete had improved properties when compared to plain mortar or concrete. In this work;
three types of fibres namely – Circular Steel fibres (CSF), Rectangular Steel Fibres (RSF)
and Steel Shaving Steel Fibres (CHSF) were investigated as composite materials. The
following percentage were used in the mix – one – half percent, one percent, one and half
percent and two percentage volume dosage rate of each steel fibre with a control mix
(without fibre). Various tests like slump, compacting factor, flexural strength, compressive
strength and beam deflections were performed on the samples produced to determine the
mechanical properties of these composites.
It was observed that, one and half percentage of fibre in concrete is a critical percentage,
the compressive strength, flexural strength were improved in mortar specimens and the
compressive, tensile and flexural strength were also improved in concrete for Circular Steel
fibres (CSF) and Rectangular Steel Fibres (RSF) while Steel Shaving Steel Fibres (CHSF)
had a decrease as the fibre volume increased above one and half percentage. Workability,
(slump and compacting factor) decrease with an increase in steel fibre percentage.
Relationships were also established between compressive strength of mortar and concrete
and spit tensile and flexural strength of steel fibre mortar and concrete specimens.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xiii
List of Plates
Chapter One: Introduction 1
1.1 Preamble 1
1.2 Research Aim and Objectives 2
1.3 Scope and Methodology 2
1.4 Research Limitation 3
1.5 Research Outcomes 3
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Chapter Two: Literature Review 4
2.1 Types of Fibres 5
2.1.1 Steel Fibres 8
2.1.2 Shape and Geometry of Steel Fibres 8
2.1.3 Durability of Steel Fibres 9
2.2 Glass Fibres 10
2.3 Synthetic Fibres 10
2.4 Other Types of Fibres 11
2.4.1 Asbestos Fibres 11
2.4.2 Natural Fibres 12
2.4.3 Carbon Fibres 12
2.5 Advantages and Limitations of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) 13
2.6 Field Performance of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) 16
2.7 Historical Development in Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) 17
2.8 Previous Investigation in to Fibre Reinforcement 19
2.8.1 Fibre Effects and Parameters on the Behavious of FRC 19
2.8.2 Different types of Fibres in Fibre Reinforced Concrete 23
2.8.3 Usage of Fibres with Conventional Steel Reinforcement 24
2.8.4 Other Applications and Test Methods on FRC 26
2.8.5 Guides and Practice of Fibre Reinforced Concrete 29
2.9 Shape, Geometry and Distribution of Fibre Reinforced Concrete 31
2.10 Interaction between Fibres and Concrete Matrix 33
2.11 Critical Fibre Volume Dosage 37
2.12 Efficiency of Fibre Reinforcement 39
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2.12.1 Length Efficiency 40
2.12.1 Fibre Orientation 43
2.13 Prediction of the Behaviours and Properties of FRC 45
Chapter Three: Experimentations 51
3.1 Preamble 51
3.2 Materials 51
3.2.1 Fine Aggregate (Sand) 52
3.2.2 Coarse Aggregate/ Stones 52
3.2.3 Cement 53
3.2.4 Water 54
3.2.5 Fibres 54
3.3 Steel Fibre Mortar/Concrete Tests 56
3.3.1 Steel Fibre Mortar Cube Tests 57
3.3.2 Steel Fibre Mortar Beam Flexural Tests 59
3.3.3 Workability Test 62
3.4 Steel Fibre Concrete Cube Test 65
3.5 Steel Fibre Concrete Tensile Strength 67
3.6 Steel Fibre Concrete Flexural Test 69
3.7 Steel Fibre Concrete Flexural Deflection 71
3.8 Chips Steel Fibre Concrete Cubes Confirmation Test 73
Chapter Four 75
4.0 Analysis and Discussion of Results 75
4.1 Sand 75
4.2 Coarse Aggregates 76
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4.3 Cement 77
4.4 Water 78
4.5 Fibres 78
4.6 Steel Fibre Mortar 78
4.6.1 Steel Fibre Mortar Cube 79
4.6.2 Steel Fibre Mortar Beam Flexural Strength 84
4.7 Workability of Steel Fibre Concrete 88
4.7.1 Slump Test 88
4.7.2 Compacting Factor Test 91
4.8 Steel Fibre Concrete Cube 95
4.9 Steel Fibre Concrete Cylinder Split Tests [Tensile] 98
4.10 Steel Fibre Concrete Beam Flexural Strength 102
4.11 Load/Deflection Response 106
4.12 Chips Steel Fibre Concrete Cubes Tests 113
4.13 Prediction Model for Strengths of Steel Fibre Composites. 116
4.14 Relationships between Compressive, Tensile and Flexural
Steel Fibre Mortar and Concrete 125
4.15 Toughness of Steel Fibre Concrete 132
Chapter Five: Conclusions and Recommendations 134
5.1 Preambles 134
5.2 Conclusions 134
5.3 Recommendations 137
References 138
Appendices 147

 

Project Topics

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Preamble
Concrete is acknowledged to be a relatively brittle material when subjected to normal
stresses and impact loads, where tensile strength is only approximately one tenth of its
compressive strength Neville, (1997). As a result of these characteristics, plain
concrete members cannot support such loads and stresses that are usually imposed on
structural elements. Historically, concrete members are reinforced with continuous
reinforcing bars to withstand tensile stresses and compensate for the lack of ductility
and tensile strength. Steel reinforcement was adopted to overcome high potentially
tensile stresses and shear stresses at critical location in concrete members.
Steel fibre mortar or concrete is either mortar or concrete where some percentages of
steel fibres are introduced into the mortar or concrete. Steel fibre mortar or concrete in
general has specialized properties that enhances resistance to impact, abrasives,
improves brittleness, good resistance to vibration loads and has high durability Lees
(2001) and Ghagal (2003).
In the early days of fibre concrete (FC), it was only used for pavement and industrial slabs.
But recently, applications of fibre-reinforced concrete have wide variety of usage in
structures such as heavy-duty pavement, airplane runways, industrial slabs, etc.
In this work, the properties of steel fibre mortar and concrete are the major point of
investigation.
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1.2 Research Aim and Objectives:
The aim of this work is to carry out a study on steel fibres mortar and concrete and that
would provide the needed improvement in the mechanical properties of steel fibre mortar
and concrete. This will aid in a better understanding of the properties of steel fibres mortar
or concrete and would enable one make use of the steel fibre mortar or concrete in
structures.
The objectives and scope will include:
(a) Conduct a comprehensive literature review in order to determine the current state of
the art regarding steel fibre reinforced concrete.
(b) Sourcing and processing of steel fibre.
(c) Evaluation of the strength properties of cubes compressive strength, beams flexural
strength and cylinders split tensile strength.
(d) Development of model equations for the prediction of the strength properties of
steel fibre mortar and concrete composite.
1.3 Scope and Methodology
The work in this thesis covers the following properties of steel fibre mortar and concrete
 Workability
 Compressive strength of mortar and concrete
 Flexural strength of mortar and concrete
 Flexural deflection of concrete beams
 Tensile strength of concrete
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The methodology involves intensive literature review followed by an experimental set up in
accordance with codes and standards to determine the above properties, analysis of the
obtained results to arrive at a reasonable conclusion.
1.4 Research Limitation
The work covers only three types of fibres like Circular steel fibre (CSF),
Rectangular steel fibre (RSF) obtained from burnt tyres and chips steel fibres (CHSF)
which is a waste from Armaco Steel Company, Kaduna, in Kaduna State. It does not touch
the aspect of polymer fibres, natural fibres and any other synthetics fibres.
1.5 Research Outcomes
The results shows that there is increase in compressive strength as the fibre
percentage increases up to a critical percentage of one and half percentage. There is a
decrease in workability of concrete as the steel fibre increases and good improvement on
flexural and tensile strengths of steel fibre mortar and concrete.
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