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Assignment on Prospect Of Hydrogen Gas In Other Countries – Economic Advantages Of Hydrogen Gas

Hydrogen gas

Hydrogen is the universe’s simplest, lightest, and most plentiful element, accounting for 90% of all matter. It is the first element in the periodic table since it has just one electron and one proton. Hydrogen is odorless, tasteless, colorless, and non-toxic in its natural condition as a gas. When hydrogen is combined with oxygen, it burns quickly, releasing a lot of energy as heat and merely generating water as waste:

2 H2 + 02 ➛ 2 H20

When hydrogen is burned in air that is mainly nitrogen, nitrogen oxides are produced, which contribute to smog and acid rain. Hydrogen is very flammable and has a wide flammability range, igniting when it makes up 4% to 74% of the air volume. It has a high energy density – roughly three times that of gasoline, for instance. At normal temperature and atmospheric pressure, hydrogen, on the other hand, has a low energy density by volume. At room temperature, one gram of hydrogen gas takes up roughly 11 litres of space. The volumetric density of a gas is increased by storing it under pressure or at temperatures below minus 253o C, at which point it changes into a liquid.

Hydrogen is an energy carrier, not a source (Box 1). It does not occur in its natural condition on Earth and must be synthesized from a hydrogen-rich molecule as a starting ingredient. Hydrogen is now generated mostly by steam reforming natural gas, although it may also be derived from other hydrocarbons by reforming or partial oxidation. The resultant emissions of carbon dioxide and other airborne pollutants are a fundamental flaw in hydrocarbon processing. The electrolysis of water by electricity is used in most other manufacturing processes that are now in use or being developed.

This method produces no emissions, but is typically more costly compared to hydrocarbon reforming or oxidation because it requires more energy and because electricity is, in most cases, more expensive than fossil fuels. Today, the commercial production of hydrogen worldwide amounts to about 40 million tonnes, corresponding to about 1% of the world’s primary energy needs. This output is primarily used as a chemical feedstock in the petrochemical, food, electronics and metallurgical processing industries.


  1. Hydrogen potential world view

Hydrogen is being explored as a clean alternative fuel for a future that is sustainable. Hydrogen, like electricity, is a secondary energy carrier that may be made from a variety of primary energy sources, including coal, natural gas, oil, biomass, solar, wind, hydro, and nuclear power. Its inclusion in the energy mix will have significant environmental advantages, including reduced air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and increased energy supply security, particularly in the transportation sector.

Hydrogen is a huge and rapidly growing business. According to Pant et al. (2009), 50 million tons of hydrogen were generated worldwide in 2004, comparable to roughly 170 million tons of petroleum, and production is rising at a rate of around 10% each year. Around 60% of hydrogen produced worldwide is utilized to make ammonia, which is used in fertilizer manufacturing, and 40% is used in the chemical, refinery, and petrochemical industries. Pant and his colleagues (2009). Lipman claims that (2011). In the United States, around 11 million metric tons of hydrogen are generated each year. This is enough to power 20-30 million automobiles or 5-8 million households.


Hydrogen Current and Future Markets

Hydrogen is used in the following industries across the world: 61 percent for ammonia manufacturing, 23% for oil refining, and 9% for methanol production. The United States uses around 20% of worldwide hydrogen output. Pant and his colleagues (2009).

In 2007, the United States produced around 9 million metric tons of hydrogen per year from nonrenewable energy sources. As seen in the table below, this equates to about 60 million metric tons of CO2 emissions.


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