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Download this complete Project material titled; Quality Of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks In Plateau State with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

Sandcrete hollow blocks are widely used in Plateau State. The quality of these blocks produced, however, differs from each manufacturer due to different methods employed in the production and the properties of the constituent materials. This research work focuses on the impact of quality control practices by manufacturers on the quality of blocks produced in the state. General survey of the entire state was conducted to determine the number of block industries in the state and 121 block manufacturing industries were observed. Five (5) block industries were selected randomly for the studies. 300 Sandcrete blocks of average sizes of 450 x 230 x 230mm were purchased from the manufacturers and tested for dry and wet development compressive strength; and wet compressive strength after 28 days, the density, water absorption, dry shrinkage, wetting expansion and dimension tolerance of the blocks were also determined.Sand (fine aggregates) material samples were also taken from the manufacturers and tested for grading, silt and clay contents. Cement samples used for the manufacturing of these blocks were collected and tested for setting times, standard consistency and soundness. The mix ratio and method of curing were also considered. The research work confirmed that, the highest dry and wet development compressive strength values were found to be 0.75N/mm2 and0.62N/mm2 respectively. The highest wet compressive strength was found to be 0.86N/mm2. The sand materials fell within zone 1 and 2 of the British standard sieve, and the silt and clay contents were found to be less than 6% as specified by BS EN 1377-2:1990, which are adequate for good mix.The cement consistency was found to be 30.5% which is within the BS EN 196-6:2010 requirement, the initial setting time was found to be 48minutes and the final setting time was found to be 2hours 47minutes, which is within the recommendations of BS EN 196-:2008. The soundness was found to be 1.2mm, which is within the recommendations of 12mm specified by BS EN 196-3:2008. The blocks produced are therefore less than the local and international standard requirements and therefore, unsuitable for use as a load bearing wall.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page Title page – – – – – – – – – -i Declaration – – – – – – – – – -ii Certification – – – – – – – – – -iii Dedication – – – – – – – – – -iv Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – -v Abstract – – – – – – – – – -vi Table of content – – – – – – – – -vii List of Tables – – – – – – – – viii List of Figures – – – – – – – – ix CHAPTER ONE PAGE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – -1
1.1 Statement of the problem – – – – – – -2
1.2 Justification of the Study – – – – – – -2
1.3 Aim and Objectives – – – – – – -2
1.4 Scope of the study – – – – – – -3
1.5 Description of the study Area – – – – – -3
1.6 Map of Plateau State – – – – – – -5
CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Literature review – – – – – – – -6 2.1 Sandcrete Hollow Blocks – – – – – – – -6 2.2 Cement – – – – – – – – -7 2.3 Aggregate – – – – – – – – – -9 2.4 Water – – – – – – – – -9 2.5 Mix proportion – – – – – – – – -10 2.6 Water/cement ratio – – – – – – – -11 2.7 Block production – – – – – – – -12 2.8 Curing – – – – – – – – -12 2.9 Storage – – – – – – – – -13 2.10 Form and size – – – – – – – – -13
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2.11 Physical Properties of Sandcrete Blocks- – – – – -15 2.12 Compressive Strength – – – – – – – -15 2.13 Density – – – – – – – – -17 2.14 Dry shrinkage and moisture movement – – – – -18 2.15 Fire resistpance – – – – – – – -18 2.16 Thermal conductivity – – – – – – – -19 2.17 Efflorescence – – – – – – – -19 CHAPTER THREE 3.1 Survey of Existing Block Industries – – – – – -20 3.2 Summary of the existing functional block industries – – – -21 3.3 North East Zone (zoneA) – – – – – -22 3.4 North West zone (zone B) – – – – – – -24 3.5 South West zone (zone C) – – – – – – -26 3.6 South East Zone (zone D) – – – – – – – -28 3.7 Industry I – – – – – – – – -32 3.8 Industry II – – – – – – – – -34 3.9 Industry III – – – – – – – -35 3.10 Industry IV – – – – – – – -37 3.11 Industry V – – – – – – – – -38 3.12 The Block Sample Test – – – – – -41 3.13 Sieve Analysis – – – – – – – -41 3.14 Silt Content – – – – – – – -42 3.15 Cement Test – – – – – – – -43 3.16 Dry Development compressive strength – – – – – -44 3.17 Wet Development Compressive strength – – – – -45 3.18 Wet Compressive Strength – – – – – – -46 3.19 Density of the Block – – – – – – – -49 3.20 Water Absorption – – – – – – -50 3.21 Dry shrinkage and wetting Expansion – – – – – – -51
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CHAPTER FOUR 4.1 Particle Size Distribution – – – – – – – -52 4.2 Silt Content – – – – – – – – -53 4.3 Cement Result – – – – – – – – -53 4.4 Dry Development Compressive strength – – – – -53 4.5 Wet Development Compressive strength – – – – -55 4.6 Wet Compressive strength – – – – – – -56 4.7 Summary of strength Results – – – – – – -57 4.8 Sandcrete Block Density – – – – – – – -57 4.9 Water Absorption – – – – – – – -58 4.10 Dry Shrinkage and Wetting Expansion – – – – – -58 CHAPTER FIVE 5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – – -60 5.2 Recommendations – – – – – – – -62 Reference – – – – – – – – – -63 Appendixes – – – – – – – – – -6

 

Project Topics

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Information Sandcrete hollow block is one of the most common building materials used in most building constructions that require walling units in many countries of the world; Nigeria inclusive. Sandcrete hollow block is made from the mixture of cement, sand (fine aggregate) and water in a standard specified mix proportion. It has the following nominal standard sizes of: 450mm x230mm x 100mm 450mm x230mm x150mm 450mm 230mm x 230mm NIS 87: (2006) British Standard (BS EN 77-3) : 2006, defines block as a masonry unit of larger size in all dimensions than specified for bricks but no dimension should exceed 650mm nor should the height exceed either its length or six times its thickness. Sandcrete hollow block is either produced manually or by moulding machine. The manual production suffers the problem of less compaction and therefore less strength after curing. The machine moulding when produced according to the standards, suppose to attain strength of not less than 3.45 N/mm2for mean strength and 2.59 N/mm2 for the lowest individual strength BS EN 77-3:2006.The Federal Ministry of Works (1979), recommends 2.1 N/mm2 for mean strength and 1.7N/mm2 for the lowest individual strength; Though not in accordance with BS EN 771-3:2006. Sandcrete hollow block is still playing important role in the provision of walling unit.
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1.2 Statement of the Problem Most of the sandcrete hollow blocks produced in Plateau state are produce without reference to any standard. The quality of these sandcrete hollow blocks produced in the state commercially, however, need to be checked and be sure that they meet the minimum specified international standards. This research work therefore, tried to investigate the quality or physical properties of sandcrete hollow blocks produced in the state commercially for the purpose of determining its quality and suitability as a building unit. 1.3 Justification of the Study Most of the blocks produced in Plateau State are somehow substandard; this contributes to the deteriorations of buildings in the state. Therefore, investigations to determine the quality of blocks produced in the state could not be over emphasized. The standard compressive strength of sandcrete hollow block can only be achieved when its production is done in accordance with the BS or NIS standard. The final compressive strength of sandcrete hollow block can be as high as 3.5N/mm2, but 3.45N/mm2 is the BS recommended compressive strength. Thus, the research will find out whether the strength of the blocks produced in the state are not up to standard. 1.4 Aim and Objectives This research work is aimed at assessing the quality of sandcrete hollow blocks produced commercially in Plateau State with the following objectives.
i. To carry out survey of the manufacturing block industries in Plateau State.
ii. To determine the particle size distribution by sieve analysis and silt and clay content of the sand materials used for the production of these blocks.
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iii. To determine the varying mix proportion used by the block producing industries and compare with thestandards.
iv. To determine the dry and wet compressive strengths of the sandcrete blocks produced with age, in the state and compare with the international and local standards.
v. To determine the density of the finished sandcrete blocks.
1.5 Scope of the Study and Limitation This research work intended to:
i. Review the previous type of research works done on sandcrete hollow blocks here in Nigeria, some neighboring countries and internationally.
ii. Determine the properties of the materials used for the production of these blocks and compare with the standard.
iii. Determine the dry and wet strengths of the blocks.
iv. The chemical properties aspect of the blocks is not considered in this study.
1.6 Description of The Study Area Plateau state, which was created in February 1976, is the twelfth largest state in Nigeria and is roughly located in the center of the country. It is geographically unique in Nigeria because it is totally surrounded by the Jos plateau, having the Jos plateau totally in its central and northern part. Its capital is Jos. Map of Plateau state with its seventeen local governments is shown below.
Plateau state is celebrated as the Home of peace and tourism”. It has a population of around 3.5 million people (2006 census). Plateau state is sharing boundaries with Bauchi state to the North East, Kaduna state to North West, Nasarawa state to the south west and Taraba State to the east. It is located in the middle belt, of the country,
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with an area of 26,899 square kilometers and named after the Jos plateau, a mountainous area in the north of the state with captivating rock formations. Rocks are scattered across the grasslands, which cover the entire plateau. Plateau state is situated almost at the geographical centre of Nigeria and about 179 kilometers (111miles) from Abuja, the nation‟s capital. Jos is linked by road, rail and air to other states of the country. It is located between latitude 08o 24I N and latitude 008o 32I and 010o 38I east.
The mean annual rainfall varies from 132cm in the southern part to 146cm on the plateau, www.plateaustategovt.net (2016). The Jos plateau makes source of many rivers in northern Nigeria including the Kaduna, Gongola, Hadeja and Yobe rivers.
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Plate I: Map of Plateau State local government areas with the local Governments selected for the studies in red *and black blocks.

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