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Download this complete Project material titled; Relationship Between Continuous Assessment Scores And Performance In Art In Plateau State Post Primary Schools with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

This study seeks to investigate the relationship between continuous assessment
(C.A.) scores and examination performance among students in J.S.S. in Plateau State.
Five hundred and seven (507) students were randomly selected and tested from thirteen
schools in nine of the thirteen Education Inspectorate Zones of Plateau State. Their C.A.
scores for three years were computed and compared to test the following null hypotheses:
i. there is no significant relationship between C.A. scores and examination
scores in J.S.S. in Plateau State;
ii. gender does not affect performance of students in art in junior secondary
schools;
iii. there is no significant differences in the C.A. performance of students in
urban, semi urban and rural schools.
Pearson Product Moment Correlation (P.P.M.R.) was used to test hypothesis 1. A
correlation of 0.394 higher than the table value of 0.88 was obtained at 505 degrees of
freedom. The probability level of significance was 0.05 (P<0.05), inferring that
significant difference exists between C.A. scores and examinations. The hypothesis that
there is no significant relationship between continuous assessment and examination
scores is therefore rejected.
To determine if gender affects performance t-test was used for comparison of the
two variables. A t-value of 3,32 at 505 degrees of freedom was obtained while the table
value was a.96 at same degree of freedom with probability level of significance of 0.05
(P<0.05). The hypothesis that gender does not affect performance in art in junior
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secondary schools is therefore rejected, implying that significant difference exist in
gender performance with the males performing better.
Analysis of variance was used to test hypothesis 3. The finding reveals
significant differences in the students’ mean performance according to location ranked as
follows: urban 63,5769, semi urban 57,4032 and rural 50,7393, implying that location
affects C.A. performance in the arts. The hypothesis is therefore rejected.
These findings generated the following recommendations:
i. Periodic research of this nature should be organized to identify C.A. problems
to check cases of subjective assessment
ii. Sufficient staff in quality and quantity should be employed to check excess
work-load while adequate materials and work-space be provided to ensure
uniform learning conditions in all schools.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page ………………………………………………………………….. i
Declaration ………………………………………………………………… ii
Dedication …………………………………………………………………. iii
Copyright ………………………………………………………………….. iv
Certification ……………………………………………………………….. v
Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………. vi
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………. vii
Table of Contents ………………………………………………………….. ix
List of Tables ………………………………………………………………. xii
Definition of Terms ………………………………………………………… xiii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………….. 1
1.1 Background …………………………………………………. 1
1.2 The Statement of the Problem ……………………………… 6
1.3 The Need for the Study …………………………………….. 8
1.4 Research Questions ………………………………………… 8
1.5 Null Hypotheses ……………………………………………. 9
1.6 Purpose of the Study ……………………………………….. 9
1.7 Significance of the Study …………………………………… 9
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study ………………………. 10
1.9 Organization of the Data …………………………………… 10
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CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE …………………………………. 12
2.1 Introduction ………………………………………………… 12
2.2 Concept of Continuous Assessment ……………………….. 14
2.3 Rationale and Characteristics of Continuous Assessment … 17
2.4 Concerns About Continuous Assessment …………………. 23
2.5 Concise Scope and Continuous Assessment, Recording
and Reporting ……………………………………………… 25
2.6 Concept of Evaluation in Art Education ……………………. 26
2.7 Problems of Evaluation in Art ………………………………. 27
2.8 Essential Considerations in Art Evaluation …………………. 27
2.9 Teacher as Evaluator of Art in Class ………………………… 28
2.10 Grading of Art Works ……………………………………….. 30
2.11 Proposed Method of Evaluation …………………………….. 32
2.12 Critique and Class Participation as Part of Evaluation ………. 33
2.13 Summary ……………………………………………………… 34
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ……………………………………………. 36
3.1 Introduction …………………………………………………… 36
3.2 Research Design ……………………………………………… 36
3.3 Population and Sample ……………………………………….. 36
3.4 The Research Procedure ……………………………………… 38
3.5 Population Distribution According to Schools ……………….. 39
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3.6 Descriptive of the Instruments ………………………………. 41
3.7 Validity and Reliability of the Instruments ………………….. 41
3.8 Zaria Test of Artistic Ability (ZATAA) ……………………… 41
3.9 Administration of ZATAA …………………………………… 42
3.10 Pilot Test ……………………………………………………… 43
3.11 Summary ……………………………………………………… 43
CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 44
4.1 Introduction …………………………………………………… 44
4.2 Comparison of Performance Using Mean, Standard
Deviation and Coefficient of Variance of C.A. and
Examination According to Schools …………………………… 44
4.3 Presentation of Results by C.A. Scores and Examination Scores 46
4.4 Presentation of Results by Gender …………………………….. 47
4.5 Presentation of Results by Location …………………………… 47
4.6 Presentation of Results by Research Questions ………………… 49
4.7 Comparison of performance Using the Mean, Standard
Deviation and Coefficient of Correlation According to Schools 51
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ……………….. 54
5.1 Summary of Study …………………………………………….. 54
5.2 Conclusion ……………………………………………………… 58
5.3 Recommendations ……………………………………………… 59
References ……………………………………………………………………… 61
Appendices ……………………………………………………………………… 64

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Continuous assessment is often regarded as a comprehensive mechanism for grading students’
performance in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains of learning (FMEST, 1985). It
was first introduced into the Nigerian School System in 1982, along side the 6.3.3.4 system of
education. Turton (1984), Ogunnoyi (1984), and Ohuche (1988) share the view that continuous
assessment involves the assessment and recording of the total learning experiences and
achievements of students throughout their school career. This is carried out in a manner that is
systematic, cumulative, comprehensive and guidance-oriented, thereby ensuring that relevant
information, from which far reaching decisions affecting the learner’s academic and future life
could be taken. Ebegulem (1982), and Dean (1996) add that the system also requires the use of a
broad range of evaluation techniques to secure the vital data for decision making.
With its introduction, continuous assessment effectively replaces the
old system of examination which according to Farrant (1980), assessed
and certificated students on the basis of one final examination, mainly
in the cognitive domain. But this has known to only encourage
memorization or rote learning and create psychological tension that
could lead to poor performance during end of term or final
examinations. In addition, it makes no provision for students who fall
sick during examination. This position is supported by Farrant (1980),
Desforges (1989) and is also amplified by a Federal Ministry of
Education, Science and Technology (F.M.E.S.T., 1985) document
which adds that the over emphasis on examination grades and paper
qualification has encouraged the prevailing large scale examination
leakage and other examination malpractice witnessed even today, to the
detriment of actual performance by the learners.
However, the foregoing does not imply that continuous assessment
lacks certain weaknesses, as contained in the findings of Turton (1984)
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and James (1998). They identified variation in the scoring procedures
and grading among teachers using different assessment instruments.
They also identified differences in the quality of tests and assignment
instruments used by different teachers in different schools.
Comparability of records of student’s performance within the same
school and across schools consequently becomes difficult.
Furthermore, the cumulative nature of continuous assessment requires
extensive record keeping, trained teaching and non-teaching personnel,
facilities and equipment. Though the government is aware of these prerequisite
for successful implementation of the continuous assessment
system, not much has been done to address this issue.
While the problems hindering the successful implementation of
continuous assessment cuts across all subjects taught in the school
curriculum, specific problems affecting individual subjects also exist.
In the area of art education, the use of grades or numerical scores in
assessing students’ performance appears to be contentious. The
outcome of several studies in this area of art education: Lowenfeld and
Brittain (1975), Olorukooba (1977), Eisner (1989), Nwana (1981) and
Osuagwu (1997), indicate that the main problem centers on how best to
assess or grade students’ progress either by using letter grades or
numerical values to indicate or predict students’ performance. The lack
of uniform format for assessment can only compound the issue of
comparability of scores between classes of the same school and across
schools. This brings to question the reliability and validity of such
procedure.
As James (1998) opined, assessment goes with quality teaching.
However, Akolo (1989) found that inadequate staff both in quantity and
quality is among the serious problems facing the teaching of art, which
inversely affect assessment. The novelty of continuous assessment
requires intensive training of personnel in pre-service and in-service
programmes in data collection, analysis and interpretation. Arbitrary
award of grades and subjective assessment can be checked by using
trained personnel t improve validity and comparability of cores among
schools. Again, the non-availability of art materials and equipment in
school “A” which depends largely on improvised materials (where
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obtainable) and the use of quality materials in school “B” does not
make for fair comparison of performance and selection for further
studies or job placement. Wachowiak (1985), Akolo (op cit), hold that
adequate classroom facilities are a pre-requisite for successful teaching
and by implication successful performance. Such variation in facilities
are seen in state and federal schools as well as private elitist
institutions.
Qualitative art product and experience is contingent upon, (a) adequate
time devoted to teaching and learning, and (b) adequate time to produce
the art products. Akolo (1989), observed that insufficient time for
teaching and learning art can only result in inadequate creative
sessions. Moreover some parents and schools generally consider art as
a recreational activity that lacks serious academic value. This probably
explains the lack of serious attitude towards it as regards the allocation
of adequate time for teaching and learning. Continuous assessment in
these circumstances experiences problems because teachers require to
pay individual attention to students. Overcrowded classrooms and
excess work load further make comprehensive assessment, recording
and subsequent report on students more comprehensive, in the
affective, cognitive and psychomotor domain. Obanya (1985) confirms
the need for extensive reporting on pupils to parents and guardians.
Despite these short comings of continuous assessment, the benefits
outweigh its deficiencies. Farrant (1980), perceived this when he
asserted that it monitors teaching, discriminates between children of
different abilities, motivates pupils and teachers, enhances predictive
validity, guidance opportunities inter-alia. For Turton (1984) and
Duncan and Dunn (1988), the informal approach and observation
adopted in the course of continuous assessment can lead to
improvement in relationship and cooperation between staff and
students.
Continuous assessment is characterized by systematic, cumulative and
comprehensive nature. Being systematic it introduces order into the
system. Being comprehensive, different assessment instruments are
used, giving assessment a broad base, greater validity and reliability.
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By its cumulative nature, previous assessments and records are used for
detailed and comprehensive reports from students. Lost of information
at any point could be recreated from other sources. Since records are
sent from school authorities to local government, state and federal
education authorities. Obanya (1985), F.M.E.S.T. (1985), documents
considered this as an insurance against theft, fire disaster and other
hazards. Duncan and Dunn (1988), Ohuche (1988), Desforges (1989)
all consider it as diagnostic. It identifies immediate and long range
strengths and weaknesses in students for immediate and subsequent
remedial actions, to improve learning and teaching conditions.
The process of continuous assessment hinges on the process of
evaluation. Olorukooba (1987), Duncan and Dunn (op.cit) regard
evaluation as the determination of the extent of success or failure to
achieve one’s objectives in a given task. It involves making judgment
based on information available from the process of assessment, which
includes formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is
carried out during class sessions to gather information, (a) by teachers
about their pupils, (b) by teachers about their teaching, and (c) by
pupils about their progress. According to Duncan and Cunn (op.cit),
the central focus of evaluation should always be the curriculum and the
pupils. This is contrasted to summative evaluation, which provides
assessment records achieved in the past for the purpose of reporting to
parents, students themselves and other parties, (James 1988). In
addition, Desforges (op.cit) and Dean (1996) strongly recommend
assessment for four reasons:
i) factual recall;
ii) understanding of the concept behind a pierce of work;
iii) ability to apply what has been learned to new situations;
iv) assessing the extent to which new skills have been acquired.
This way, the art teacher can identify students who need more help,
those who work faster and at more challenging level. The teacher also
gains knowledge of his areas of success or failure in teaching and the
readiness of the students for the next stage of learning. The students
also receive feedback, which tells their level of progress. Dean (op.cit)
however observed that assessment may have counter points, where low
achievers are demoralized or discouraged by their low performance
scores.
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The operators of continuous assessment techniques are the teachers.
Their formative and summative assessment form the basis for the
proper certification of students at all levels of education. W.A.E.C., the
only recognized test agency nationally for the junior secondary schools,
presently relies on the results of assessments supplied by the teachers.
Conscientious assessments of performance therefore is a vital necessity
to the future of the students and the nation as a whole.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The essence of this investigation is to study the extent to which
continuous assessment scores correlate with the students’ performance
in the light of the apparent variation and disparity in assessment
strategies.
The New National Policy on Education Section 4:1 states that
educational activity will be centred on the learner for maximum self
development. Furthermore, Section 1:7 states that educational
assessment and evaluation will be liberalized by basing them in whole
and in part on continuous assessment of the progress of the individual.
Continuous assessment system by its nature is “centred on the learner
for maximum, self development and fulfillment”. The systematic,
comprehensive and cumulative approach of continuous assessment is
utilized to achieve this maximum self development and fulfillment of
students, where the old examination system has failed because tests
conducted to assess the performance can only sample portions of the
syllabus during the examination, (Nwana, 1992). The old system
further promotes memorization thereby encouraging examination
malpractice. Consequently its reliability and validity as predictors of
students’ achievements is brought to question. Investigations also
reveal that examination malpractice and leakage were endemic in the
old terminal examination system as students work towards only passing
their examinations, by “fair and means”. Records of examination
malpractice of the late 70s attest to this. Subject teachers had no say in
the first examination assessment of the performance of their students.
Ironically, assessors who are remote from the classrooms were
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engaged, ostensibly to ensure fairness to all students. Because the
system was not cumulative, the past performances of the students were
not taken into consideration. The result was a one way certification by
external examination. The weaknesses of the external examination
system outweighed its benefits, hence the decision to scrap it in 1982.
The new system (C.A.) combines both the class teachers assessments
scores and the results of the external assessors to certificate the
students, in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of
learning. It embraces the learning experiences of the students, which
subsumes (a) the mode of learning that took place while in the school,
(b) what they know and can talk about, (c) their application of the
knowledge, (d) their cognitive ability and performance, their likes,
dislikes, habits, attitudes and values all summarized the concern of the
teacher operating the continuous assessment strategy. Such assessment
is carried out at predetermined intervals of time, taking into account the
total experiences and achievements of the students throughout their
school career. It is characterized as systematic, comprehensive,
cumulative and diagnostic, thereby providing objective data on the
performance of the students to facilitate decision making.
Consequently, the resultant weighted scores are a truer reflection of the
student’s capability and ability.
However, the system is not without problems. The complex evaluation
technique using different instruments is found to be the consequences
of variation in grades and scores of different classes and different
schools. Murphey (1979), mounted a research on prediction exercise
that revealed considerable disparity on this issue. Teachers were found
to vary in their capacity to pick out the find attributes or behaviour in
their students’ performance. In addition, Hoste and Bloomfield (1975)
found similar disparities while attempting to standardize assessments
through the use of apparently specific scheme purporting to describe
achievement. These findings give pertinence to the questions raised by
Ojerinde (189), in Osuagwu (1997) on the reliability of raw scores sent
to examination sections of state ministries of education by schools.
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1.3 The Need for the Study
Doubts have been raised as regards the efficacy of continuous
assessment as an alternative to the expunged terminal examination
system. The reasons for such fears appear genuine. The need to
undertake this study therefore is to confirm or dispel such fears.
1.4 Research Questions
i) To what extent will Junior Secondary School Students’
performance in continuous assessment in art correlate with their
performance in examination?
ii) To what extent will continuous assessment predict the future
achievements of students in art activities?
iii) To what extent do continuous assessment scores in art correlate
with the scores of examination?
iv) To what extent can we compare scores across schools?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
i) There is no significant difference between continuous assessment score of
students and Junior Secondary Schools’ examination scores.
ii) Gender difference does not affect students’ performance in the continuous assessment
and Junior Secondary Schools Examination.
iii) There is no significant difference in the performance of students in continuous
assessment scores and examination scores in urban and rural schools in Plateau State.
1.6 Purpose of the Study
The study is designed to study the relationship (if any), between continuous assessment and final examination scores in predicting
students’ performance in art in Junior Secondary Schools Certificate Examination in Plateau State. The study will also investigate the
validity and reliability of teacher-made tests and their predictive validity in Junior Secondary Schools Certificate Examination
(J.S.C.E) and the comparability of scores across schools.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Relatively few studies appear to have been carried out on Junior Secondary School Examination performance and continuous
assessment scores as predictors for certification and entry into Senior Secondary Schools. This is necessary as qualified teachers both
in quality and quantity are lacking. In addition, studies have revealed discrepancy and variation in teachers’ approach to continuous
assessment issues. This seems to question the validity and reliability of continuous assessment scores sent to Examination Sections of
the State Ministry of Education by schools. The suspicion of bias and/or subjective assessment by teachers of art also highlights the
significance of this study. The degree of correlation between continuous assessment and final examination scores and their service as
predictors of students’ performance shall also be studied. Attempts shall also be made to establish whether correlation exists between
the continuous assessment scores of schools and performance of students in examination as intended by the Federal Government in
her policy statement, (1988, No. 22.1). Turton (1984), Ojerinde (1989) and James (1998) all seem to have misgiving regarding the
validity and reliability of test instruments. The findings shall confirm for refute the bases for such doubts. Furthermore, the problem
of equality standards across schools and between same levels of classes within the schools as observed by Turton (1984) and Ipaye in
Osuagwu (1996), again raises questions on whether the success of a student in one school could be replicated in another school, given
a similar test.
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1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The selection of subjects for this study was from nine of the thirteen Area Inspectorate Zones of Plateau State. Twelve schools were
sample in the nine Area Inspectorate Educational Zones. The schools were those that share similar characteristics of teaching art in all
levels, and were offering art for a period of not less than five years. Furthermore, the schools should have been registering and sitting
for JSCE and SSCE examinations in art for five years, and were presently offering art in both examinations. In addition, the teachers
of art in selected schools were trained professionals in the area of art.
1.9 Organization of the Data
The research has been arranged into five chapters. Chapter 1 forms the background and justification of the study, statement of
problem, terminology used and the scope and delimitation of the study.
Chapter 2 contains the survey of related literature in areas that include the concept of continuous
assessment, rationale and characteristics of continuous assessment, concerns about continuous
assessment, concise scope of continuous assessment, recording and reporting, concept of
evaluation in art education, problem of evaluation in art, essential consideration in art evaluation,
teacher as evaluator of art in class, grading of art works, proposed method of evaluation, class
participation and critique as part of evaluation and conclusion.
Chapter 3 contains the research design or methodology and statistical background of the study.
Chapter 4 looks into the analysis and interpretation of data obtained in the course of the study,
while chapter 5 subsumes the summary of findings, conclusion, recommendation and research
report based on findings on the relationship of continuous assessment and examination.

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