THE ROLE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE.
This study is aimed at identifying the role of guidance and counseling services in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. As a result of this, a number of hypothesis emerged and these include.
1. Lack of adequate facilities and materials for guidance and counseling centres in schools.
2. Lack of qualified personnel militated against organization of guidance and counseling services in secondary school.
3. Lack of finance to provide the materials needed for effective organization of guidance and counseling services is another reason why the centres are not in existence in secondary schools in the local government area.
4. Ignorance of the usefulness of guidance and counselling services to parents and teachers in secondary schools is yet another reason for the absence of guidance and counselling centres in the secondary schools.
5. The government’s unconcerned attitude towards guidance counselling programme in secondary schools also serves as an impediment to the effective implementation of the guidance and counselling services in the secondary schools.
The instrument used for the collection of data in this research was mainly the questionnaire. The questionnaires were administered to one hundred teachers within the five (5) randomly selected schools in Oredo local government area of Edo State to test the validity of the aforementioned hypothesis. From the responses of the respondents it was discovered that the importance of guidance and counselling services cannot be overemphasized.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background to the study
Statement of the study
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Limitations of the study
Review of related literature
The role of guidance and counselling services in secondary schools
The nature of the child
The need of the child
Assistance to teachers
Assistance to parents
Research design and methodology
Administration of the questionnaire
Validity and reliability of instrument
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Suggestion for further studies
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Guidance and counselling as the name implies in the mode and conduct by which an individual or a body of individual assist in the aspect of co-ordination, which lead to efficiency in a given state or policy for the up keep of the future, in a situation as it was from origination traditionally, people were guided through the use of “Ikoro” ‘Ekwe’ or what we refer to as “talking drum”. This is because, once the people hearts their sounds, everyone pays attentions, listen alternatively, because important information laws, policies and relations are usually made through such means. These traditional modes of communicating have been very successful ingredients for guidance within our society.
As a result of urbanization, and sophistication other means of guidance came into existence, such as the mass media, namely the television, the radio, the newspapers and magazines. Through these organs relevant and important information is communicated to the society are expected to be aware of their rights and wrongs and so rules and regulations will be kept. Also, within the school system, people are guided through the use of notice board, college bulletins, timetables, syllabus, magazines, bells posters and handbooks of various types. Besides, within the home children are guided through parental verbal interaction and the use of positive and negative reinforcement to ensure that order and discipline are maintained. Apart from that, when an individuals with little problems, leaves his or her home to visit a medicine man i.e. “Debia” in Jos and “baba-Ade” in Yoruba. He believes strongly that the medicine man with his charms and amulets will guide him to recovery through the instructions on how to mix and use certain concoction prepared by him. Also, people could be guided through the use of intuition.
Many philosophers believed that through the use of intuition skills many can achieve high philosophical standards that can guide ones attitude, values, norms and emotions. The above explanation points that guidance has been going on within our society, but revealed that such guidance aims at achievement of ones needs and desires, it further indicates that such guidance is more compulsive and regimented and so does not give room for ones cognitive restructuring or transformation of ideas. The traditional guidance has to weakness arising from modernization and industrialization. Thus, the traditional concept of guiding cannot cope with much of the complexity in our society. The deficiency in the traditional concept of guidance renders the above definition have to be given to be able to match its aims and purpose with the complexities of the modern society, especially as it relates to our school system.
“Guidance and counselling” is a twin word that is inseparable, but for the purpose of this study, the word “guidance” originated from the Greek word guide meaning to direct, lead, guide, pilot, assist show, inform, control advice, help, teachers give fact facts and to instruct. According to Mr. Eduwen (1994) guidance is a process of assisting individuals to understand himself and his environment, while Eduwen also defined counselling as the interaction between a trained personnel (the counsellor) and a trouble individuals (the Counsellee) for the purpose of helping the Counsellee to resolve his or her problems or crisis. The history and development of guidance and counselling as a formal educational services within the system started in the late 1950s, when a group of revered sisters of the saint twenty outsiders from different works of life to advice the sixty outgoing students on the nature of the different jobs in order to direct their choice of career through the talks. Through group of twenty met regularly in the following year and decided to cater not for only schools, but for other school in Ibadan and its environs. Later principals of school, representation from ministry of education, health, trade, industry and labour were invited to a meeting held on October 1961 to inaugurate the Ibadan career council and this later formed the nucleus of what was then knows as “The Nigerian Career Council”. As a result of the widening of the activities of the council throughout Nigeria, the name Counselling Associated of Nigeria (CAN). The organization has been very effective in the development of guidance service in Nigeria by organizing workshops, conferences, seminars, symposium and soon, to disseminate guidance information. They published a journal called “the counsellor” currently it has led to the organizing of the guidance units by federal and state ministries of education.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Guidance and counselling centres are of vital importance at all levels at Education. Unfortunately, there has not been any career in any secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State and as such the students cannot identify their talents since the new system of education their them to many career. Furthermore, many students do not know or value the importance of education in the sense that they do not exploit their environment. This is because they are guided towards the manipulation of environment. This is because they are guided towards the manipulation of the resources around them and so they are never serious with their education. The nation is also there among parents and heads of schools that the essence of education but that is not all. As a matter of facts, the aim of education will be defeated if the students cannot out of interest choose a career to follow while in schools. In the actual sense, the presence of guidance and counselling in our schools will in nor small measure reduce the rate of drop out, juvenile delinquency, armed robber and other social ills.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to find out the role of guidance and counselling in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State for growing children to fully develop and be able to adjust need a lot of guidance and counselling services, ranging from jealousy to envy, urbanization, industrialization, moral rejection of our philosophers and cultures of refusal to go to school among adolescents. The study is also an attempt to examine the extent to which the role of guidance and counselling centres in secondary schools in Oredo local government of Edo State will help in minimizing or eradicating the behaviour, emotional, psychological, social academic and financial problems among the students. All these problems can cripple any developing country and as such the role of guidance services in our secondary school will help in no small measure to reduce the crime wave.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study is multidimensional and includes to assist the child to develop and increase self understanding and comprehension of the relationship between his abilities, interest, personality, achievement and opportunities. The study will help in facilitating the socialization process and sensitivity to the needs of others. To develop social interest and a feeling to belonging. It will help in making the child to become purposeful and responsible. The study will help to develop whole some attitude and concepts about self in the feeling of adequacy and self in the feeling of adequacy and self acceptance and the courage to function in the tasks of life. From the parents view point, this relations and problems in the family setting as they relates to this child.
In addition, it will help them develop realistic views about their children development in relating to their potentialities. Above all it will help them understand their children education and social progress and problems. To teachers, this study will help him to stimulate and promote the use of guidance procedures thereby increasing the utilization of meaningful pupils personal date. It will help him to promote early identification of assets and talents and as well as liabilities of pupils. It will help him develop recognition of the importance of readiness and involvement process as crucial concept, which produce purposeful education experience. It will also help him to reconcile the uniqueness of the individual and the demands of the school and the society. All the government level, the study will go along way in helping the country to identify her talented youths and nurture them to the optimal level of social, education and economical development.
In this new guiding young people to pursue the right type of education in which there is no overpopulation of certain manpower needs and under-produced of the other aspect of the manpower needs is a sure process of building a scientific and technological society. In addition, practicing counsellor and teacher will find the result of this study useful in the discharge of their duties. Above all, the researcher hopes that result of this study will help the educational planners and the government to see the need for guidance and counselling centres in secondary schools in Oredo local government of Edo State.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions will be tested in this study:
1. Does lack of adequate facilities and materials for guidance and counselling, militates against the establishment of guidance and counselling centres in secondary schools.
2. Does lack of qualified personnel militated against organization of guidance and counselling services in secondary schools in Oredo local government area of Edo State.
3. Does lack of finance to provide the materials needed for effective organization of guidance and counselling services are not in existence in secondary schools in the local government area.
4. Does the government unconcerned attitude towards guidance and counselling programme in secondary schools also serves as an impediments to the effective implementation of the guidance and counselling services in the secondary school in Oredo local government area of Edo State.