THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA IN THE PROMOTION
OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES IN NIGERIA
(A CASE STUDY OF THE ESBS ENUGU)
The role of the media in the promotion of government policies, has a serious concern to everyone. There has been criticism over the type of government policies being dispersed by the media which could be either or a mere propaganda. While some of the media seek for ‘brown envelopes’ others are good examples of physical and mental wrecks and wretches, who are helpless. The search for a blind ambition and canker worms growth and ignorance in the match to enlighten the populace, while the ‘nourished’ information is kept back, is a very great concern. The situation, is like where people are so fatalistic in their dispensation of a ‘deplorable’ policies. One stand firm to state that one problem, is the axion that a number of proposed government policies are the irony of what are being executed. That is why this topic is very timely. But, the questions that come to mind are: This study is made up of five chapters, chapter one deals with the introductory part of they study. It touches on vital subjects such as statement of the problems, purpose of the study, scope of the formulation of hypotheses, theoretical framework, and limitation of the study. Chapter two highlights the literature review which is other peoples view on the subject matter, the study will attempt to strike a balance between observation and theoretical concepts and feeling of people about government policies. Chapter three deals with the areas covered by the study and the method employed in the analysis of the data that was collected through research questionnaire, design, selection of sample size, sources of research materials, the research instruments and treatment of data. Chapter four analyzed the collected data and presented them in a simple form as to enhance proper understanding and provide correct statistical testing for the postulated research in the study using research methodology Chapter five brought together the summary of findings, incorporating the observed data to make recommendations on how to apply government policies for the success of the mass media. Recommendations are therefore made for every public/mass establishment to appreciate and recognize the need for mass media activities as this will help to balance information. Finally, the researcher sincerely hope that this study will contribute invaluable quota in understanding mass media in the promotion of government policies in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- Background of the study
- Statement of problem
- Purpose of study
- Significance of study
- Research Question
- Definition of Terms
- Scope of the study
- Literature Review
- Historical Background
- Research Methodology
- Research Design
- Area of study
- Sampling Procedure
- Population of the study
- Instrument for Measurement
- Sample size for Ruralities
- Data Collection
- Data Presentation
- Analysis and Discussion of Findings
- Suggestions for further Research
- Limitation of the Study
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The role of the media is the promotion of government policies, is indeed very inevitable. But, there has been have and cry over the traditional dissemination of information by the media. The informed message is the irony of what the government does. This single attitude by the media irritates, thereby leaving little or no care at all for the disseminated message.
It is indeed very important to know what the three key words; media, government and policies stand for.
The family Dictionary (1984:439) defines media as:“A substance regarded as the means of transmission of a force or effect”
The dictionary further states clearly, what the term government stands for (1984:301).“The machinery through which political authority is exercised.” Again, the phrase means, (1984:525), “An over all plan embracing general goal and procedures.
More of than not, while some officials of the media seek for brown envelopes, other are examples of canker worms and wretches. They sway the good intention of the intended policies for the benefit of the masses, to suit that of the government. It is like blowing the trumpet.
On the part of the media, the zeal to live to the tenets of journalism, burns within. But for the pre and past censorship, they are victims of circumstances. It is very evidenced that we have not yet bailed ourselves from social and political problems. Indeed, the intention of any meaningful government is to bring very closely their intentions to the government.
This is a serious problem that must be addressed. How can the populace be well informed while depending on the media. What can the government do in order to foster on relationally positive policies for the message.
Infact, Aniebona said (1987:8)“… media is a powerful, and effective instrument for activating national goals such as in need for while spread education for both certain prescribed goals in economic growth, health care, political and social awareness, political stability and national identity.”
The above statement less to explain the importance of the media in our social interactions, which cannot be ignored.
The media is indeed a viable instrument for national growth.
But all effort to hail Mr. E.N Aniebona sayings about the media is said to be very abortive, since the problems of the media are not far-fetched. There the four ebeories of the press and the laws of the press. It should be noted that when we are talking of the press, we are referring to the print and broadcast media. Achusim, (1997:34-35).
The four theories of the press, has to do with the authoritarian theory, the libertarian theory; others include the totalitarian theory and the social responsibility theory (113:34-35).
On the other hand, the press law include that of liber, slander, defamation; while others are that of invasion of privacy and copy-right law respectively (113:34-35).
In fact, different nation of the world promised a sumptuous’ freedom of the press to its citizens, but in one way or the other sit on their right. Such countries like America, Soviet Union and Europe are good examples.
But in Nigeria section 36, subsection 1, of 1999 Nigeria constitution, allow the journalists to practice their profession without reservations. But this is not so. In fact this section says, “Every person shall be entitled to freedom of expression, including freedom to hold opinions and impart ideas and information without interference.”
To further buttress the saying, subsection 2, of the same 1999 section 36, states thus: “Without prejudice of the generality of sub section (1) of this section, every person shall be entitled to own, establish and operate any medium of dissemination of information, ideas and opinions provided that no person other than the government of the federation or of a state or any other person or body authorized by the president shall own, establish or operate a television or wireless broadcasting station for any purpose what so ever.”
It is a pity that the above provision of the press freedom, is like the Greek Bible. Such provision is confusing and ambiguous.
This leads to draw the similar situation that happened in Oswald Mtshalis poem, the washer-woman’s prayer (197:50) look at her hands Raw, Knobby and Calloused, look at her face like a bean skin soaked in brine for countless fears she was toiled to wash her master’s clothes soiled by a lord’s luxuries in frost freckled mornings, in sun-scorched after moons she has drugged murmurless. One day she fell and fainted with weariness. Her moth a foaming spout gushing a gibberish. “Good Lord! Desar Lord!” She shouted “why am I so farmented? How long have I lamented? Tell me Lord, tell me o Lord.” “My child dear child,” she heard “Suffer for those who live in gilded sin toil for those who swim in a bowl of pink gin. “Thank you Lord! Thank you Lord never again will I ask why must I carry this task”.
Infact, this good quotation from the poet’s poem is to illustrate to you how a journalist carries his burden without complaining, suffering for those who give an attractive, but deceptive appearance.
The only way out of this obnoxious bondage, is to allow the freedom of the press, by:
- Removing all manner of restrictions except the one opposed by law and which will be for the interest of the masses
- There should be freedom from legal and administrative order.
- Again, freedom from actions designed to frustrate, prevent or control the free circulation of information should be abolished
- The press should be allowed to criticize the government and not the reverse, since the press is the watchdog of the society.
- The press should also be freed from the ‘evil’ laws like decree four of 1984 being the protection of public officers against allegation and false accusation.
The above measures will then allow the press to disseminate information tot he mass on free and fare grounds. Thus, the policies of the government, no doubt will teach the door steps of the citizenry.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The role of the media in the promotion of government policies, has a serious concern to everyone. There have been criticism over the type of government policies being dispersed by the media which could be either or a mere propaganda.
While some of the media seek for ‘brown envelopes’ others are good examples of physical and mental wrecks and wretches, who are helpless. The search for a blind ambition and canker worms growth and ignorance in the match to enlighten the populace, while the ‘norished’ information is kept back, is a very great concern. The situation, is like where people are so fatalistic in their dispensation of a ‘deplorable’ policies.
But, the questions that come to mind are: What kind of information is necessary to keep the citizens educated on the policies of the government? What are the side effect of such policies to the people with regard to the economic, political and socio-cultural influence?
Do the people who formulate these policies and information really live by them.
- PURPOSE OF STUDY
It is evidenced that the study of the role of the media is the promotion of government policies is a land mark to knowing the government plan for the people.
However, the role of the media is the promotion of government policies has to looked at the following way.
To identify how people respond to the awareness syndrome.
To discover the developmental elements that such awareness has produced.
Some members of the public do not know or know very little about the policies of the government. This is as a result of not having assess to the print or electronic media, as a result of the economic problems that the country faces.
The study, however sets in motion to unvail the role but the media play in terms of promoting government policies, more especially the Enugu State Broadcasting Services (ESBS) Enugu which is the focusing study.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This project write up may be very beneficial to the grass root populace and the like, who are semi-literate and illiterate to the functions of the media in the promotion of government policies.
It is pertinent to note that the study will develop a sense of participation and belonging to the activities of the government through a wide spread of policies through the media.
Furthermore, both the semi-intelligent and the geniuses will come to appreciate the kind of gesture played by the media as a means of disseminating a proper policies of the government which will be geared towards the promotion of norms, values, social, political and cultural heritage of the people. Such policies, will eventually relief them of their burden and place them on elevated ground.
This will also determine the information level of the Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS) Enugu and as well as monitoring them to increase their awareness level to the populace if they found it not to the far-reading to the targeted audience.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Do the Enugu state Broadcasting Service (ESBS) and other media play an effective role in informing the public about the government policies.
- Are the government policies truthful and coherent when used on mobilizing the populace?
- Are the populace influences by the media roles of enlightening the populace?
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
Those variable that are considered to be very paramount to the study of this project are enumerated as below:
Media: This is a substance regarded as the means of transmission of a force or effect. That is to say that any thing from where transmission of force or effect takes place is a media.
Government: It simply refers to the machinery through which political authority is exercised. In other words, it is a body responsible for the making of laws of a state, make and implement its policies and of course, maintain law and order within its boundaries. Thus, the idea of the three arms of government come into play.
Policies: The phrase stands for an over all plan, embracing general goals and procedures of the government. If there is a more to formulate a plan for the interest of all, in order to achieve a set objective, for the upliftment of their livelihood, it is thus regarded as a policy.
Pareto Efficiency of Allocation Resources: Simply put, refers to the unequalled distribution of resources.
Sinequonone: Thing or something that cannot be done without.
Conception and Operational Definition Of Terms Media
Conceptional: It is a substance regard as the means of transmission of a force or effect.
Operational: The people get themselves attached to it for getting information.
Conceptional: The machinery through which political authority is exercised.
Operational: A body responsible for the making the laws of a state, make and implement its policies, maintain law and order within its territory.
Conceptional: An overall plan, embracing general goals and procedures of the government.
OPERATIONAL: A means through which plans are made for the interest of all in order to uplift their livelihood.
Pareto efficiency of allocation of resources
CONCEPTIONAL: An unequalled distribution of resources.
OPERATIONAL: A number of times when a given allocation is not equally shared.
SINE QUO NONE
CONCEPTIONAL: Something that cannot be done without.
OPERATIONAL: A number of times when things cannot work out well without the other.
- The ESBS and other media do not play their role in informing the populace about the government policies.
- Government policies are mere deception and propaganda.
- The populace are not influenced by government policies being dished out by the media.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Many a person have different perception about the role of the medial in the promotion of government policies some view it as a solution to the upliftment of the propaganda of the government which looks very attractive, but very negative in practice.
For these reaosns, the populace tend to disbelieve the media in her attempt to propagate a lot of government policies.
However, it is easy important for the media to really consider the type of government policies that she promotes that will benefit the masses.
But if at that, the problem of exhibiting what have been said in the media is all very false, there by dispositioning the minds of the people. It is against this back ground that the researcher takes a look at the extend at which the media promotes government policies. In other words, the role of the media in the promotion of government policies.