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Role Of Instructional Materials In Pupils Academic Performance PDF

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –       –        –        –        i

Declaration          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Certification        –        –        –        –        –        –       –        –       –        iii

Dedication           –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement        –        –        –        –        –        –       –        –        v

Table of content            –        –        –        –        –        –       –       –        –        vii

List of tables        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        x

Abstract     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –       –        –        xi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the study   –        –        –        –       –       –        –        1

1.2. Statement of problem   –    –        –        –        –       –       –        –        4

1.3. Objectives of the study      –        –        –        –        –       –        –        5

1.4. Research questions  –        –        –        –        –         –       –        –        6

1.5. Research Hypothesis         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.6. Significance of the study   –        –        –        –        –       –        –        7

1.7. Scope of the study   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        8

1.8. Operational definition of terms    –        –        –        –         –       –        8

1.9. Organization of the Study  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        9

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.   Introduction          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        11

2.2.   Conceptual Literature                –        –        –        –        —                 11

2.2.1. Instructional Materials    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        12

2.2.2. Academic Performance   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        13

2.2.3. Overview of Nigeria Secondary School       –        –        –        –        15

2.2.4. Strategies to Improve social studies Performance in Secondary

Schools       –        –        —       –        –        –        –        —       –        17

2.3.    Reviews of Empirical Studies  –        –        –        –        –        –        19

2.4.   Theoretical Review         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        25

2.4.1. Theory of E.l.L Thorndike       –        –        –        –        –        –        25

2.4.2. The Theory of B. F. Skinner    –        –        –        –        –        –        26

2.4.3. Learning theory in Gestalt psychology-        –        –        –        –        27

2.4.4. Locke’s Tabula Rasa      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        28

2.4.5. Behaviorist Theory         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        28

2.5. Theoretical Framework               –        –        –        –        –        –        29

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1.   Introduction –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        30

3.2.   Research Design –  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        30

3.3.   Population of the Study  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

3.4.   Sampling Size       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

3.5.   Sampling Technique       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

3.6.   Instrument for Data Collection  –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.7.   Method of Data Collection        –        –        –        –        –        –        33

3.8.   Validity/Reliability of Instrument        –        –        –        –        –        34

3.8.1. Reliability test       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        34

3.9.    Method of Data Analysis         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        36

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1.   Introduction –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        37

4.2.   Data Presentation/Analysis        –        –        –        –        –        –        37

4.3.    Testing of Hypothesis     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        45

4.4.   Discussion of Findings    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        48

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1.   Introduction –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        51

5.2.   Summary     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        51

5.3.   Conclusion  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        52

5.4.   Recommendations –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        53

5.5.   Limitations to the Study            –        –        –        –        –        –        54

5.6.   Suggestions for Further Studies          –        –        –        –        –        54

 

REFERENCES   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        55

 

APPENDIX         –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Sex of Respondents     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        37

Table 2 Category of Respondents       –        –        –        –                  –        38

Table 3 Age distribution of Respondents     –        –        –        –        –        38

Table 4 Marital status of respondents           –        –        –        –        –        39

Table 5 Education Attainment of Respondents      –        –        –        –        39

Table 6: Respondents view on whether pupils love classes in the school      40

Table 7: Level of academic performance of pupils in primary school  –        41

Table 8: Respondents views on whether they are taught/teach with instructional

materials during school hours         –        –        –        –        –        42

Table 9: Respondents views on whether they prefer being taught/to teach with

instructional materials –        –        –        –        –        –        –        42

Table 10: Respondents views on whether pupils perform/understand better when

taught with instructional materials –        –        –        –        –        43

Table 11: type of instructional materials used when teaching/being taught    44

Table 12: Test of Hypothesis    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        46

 

 

ABSTRACT

This research work empirically explored the role of instructional materials in pupil’s academic performance. The objectives of the study were ascertain the level of students’ academic performance in Nigeria, examine the influence of instructional material utilization on teaching in primary schools of Nigeria, determine measures for preventing low academic performance using instructional materials in primary schools of Nigeria. The scope of the study is all primary schools of FCT making use of student and staff of some selected primary schools, the behaviourist theory was used as a framework. The research design used for this study is survey, the population targeted for this study consists of all primary schools in Nigeria, a total of 50 schools was used as sample size consisting of 300 questionnaires administered to students and staffs and cluster sampling technique was applied. Instrument used for this study is the questionnaire. Data collected were collected from primary sources. From the analysis of the data, the findings shows that the level of pupil’s academic performance in junior primary schools is high, the level of pupil’s academic performance taught with instructional materials is very high, the problem of Low academic performance can be solved using instructional materials such as prints, visuals. Following the findings, it was recommended that pupils should be taught using instructional materials, teachers should use the different instructional materials when teaching such as prints, visuals, audio, and audio-visuals. The study concludes that the use of instructional materials when teaching in primary schools should be embraced as this will help raise the level of comprehension.

Keyword: instructional materials, academic performance, primary school, educational system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the Study

The importance of using instructional materials in promoting pupil’s academic performance is giving. The use of instructional materials in teaching is a method adopted by primary school teachers. Instructional materials also known as teaching/learning materials are any collection of materials including animate and inanimate objects and human and non-human resources a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help achieve desired learning objectives.

Pupil’s perception in learning should be changed through learning techniques. To develop or maintain one’s specific skills, the sub skills built through instructional materials should become the building blocks for more meaningful learning. In Nigeria, teaching using instructional materials have been a part of education for years. However it is disheartening to note that the poor performance of pupil’s is still persistent. Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning to promote teachers efficiency and improve pupil’s performance.

Education is one of the most important aspect of human life especially in this modern era where educational qualification obtained is inquired of when been considered for a job by employers. The educational system of Nigeria have been in crisis for many years ranging from the problem of presence of unqualified teachers in the educational system to the problem of lack of infrastructural facilities, negative attitude of students towards learning is also a major cause.  Though (2011) states that some students buys book but do not make effective use of the book. Ahmed (2003) confirmed that in most schools in Nigeria, teaching and learning takes place under a most unconducive environment without access to essential materials.

Government of Nigeria have tried in various ways to improve the quality of education in the country by introducing various policies such as the Nigeria “National Policy on Education” published in 1997, revised in 1981 and 1990. The policy had been revised to ensure that the educational sector is supportive of government development goals. Recent initiatives have also been taken by the government in the funding of education. The FGN/ODA Nigeria Community Education Programmes introduced in 1996. One of the objective of this initiatives are to restructure educational funding arrangement. Alternative sources of funding education have been explored. In 1995 the government established the Education Tax Fund.

Another notable change has been the effort to update the curriculum, a committee for the improvement of the curriculum was also established. The overall responsibility of the Federal Ministry of Education is to ensure quality within the system, to encourage and initiate innovations and to ensure the schools maintain minimum standards of acceptable educational practice. The National Commission for Colleges of Education was established in 1990 to lay down minimum standards for all programmes of teacher education.

In Nigeria, many schools have been deficient in their operations and the overall effectiveness due to problems of teachers and pupils. This problem is pertinent to both the public and private educational institutions. While the public educational sector is faced with the problem of mismanagement, you find several private schools below standard right from the primary to the tertiary.

 

1.2. Statement of the Research Problem

Every country endeavours to provide quality education for its people, the future of such nation depends largely on it. The educational system of Nigeria is still faced with a lot of problems. Some of the problems include student learning skills, parental background, peer influence, teachers’ quality, learning infrastructure among others. The educational sector is responsible for performing several vital works in any economy. The various experts of various fields have to pass through the educational system to become one.

High academic performance is an essential factor in educational achievement. Conceptual learning, principles and understanding are not easy to master by student and this makes students less motivated and less interested to learn. This weakness causes student to perform poorly. It is discouraging to note that Nigeria students still perform poorly in academics. This is so much so in primary schools of the country. Although, for some time now it appears government have tried various methods in resolving the issue of low academic performance in primary schools.

Lack of application of effective teaching methodology is one of the major reasons of low academic performance in schools in Nigeria. In Nigeria, most school teachers teach their student without instructional materials. These is pertinent to public schools where the problem of overcrowded classes and unserious pupils is mostly experienced.

It is against this background that the researcher considered the role of instructional materials in pupil’s academic performance.

 

1.3. Objectives of the study

The aim of this study was to ascertain the role of instructional materials in pupil’s academic performance. The specific objectives are to:

  1. ascertain the level of pupil’s academic performance in Nigeria.
  2. examine the influence of instructional material utilization in primary schools of Nigeria.
  3. determine measures for preventing low academic performance using instructional materials in Nigeria.

 

1.4. Research Questions

This study will be guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is the level of pupil’s academic performance in Nigeria?
  2. What is the impact of instructional material utilization in primary schools of Nigeria?
  3. What are the measures for preventing low academic performance using instructional materials in Nigeria?

 

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The study is guided by the following hypothesis:

H0:     There is no significant relationship between instructional material and academic performance of pupils in primary schools of Nigeria.

 

1.6. Significance of the Study

The critical nature of higher academic performance in particular and the educational sector in general to the success or growth of any economy is given, this is because higher academic performance prepares the pupils to grow up as active, responsible and reflective members of the society. Empirically, this study is carried out to investigate the role of instructional materials in pupil’s academic performance in Nigeria so as to ameliorate the problems associated with it and proffer solutions. This study will be important to the academic sector of the nation, as it will help guide the boards in charge of school management on how it can operate and how it should operate.  It will teach it the importance of good academic performance to the country.

This study will be of utmost importance to investors, government and the researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to the various Nigeria stakeholders taking adequate measures in educational sector.  It is hoped that the exploration of secondary schools will provide a broad view of the operations of the educational system to investors and government. It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter by investigating empirically the role of instructional materials in academic successes. This study will be of benefit to;

The Academia: members of the academia will find the study relevant as it will also form basis for further research and a reference tool for academic works.

Government: this study will reveal to the government happenings in the educational sector. Formulation and implementation of policies based on this findings would ensure development in the sector.

Investors: this study shall also be valuable to the investors especially those who may have research interest as it shall guide their private investment decisions.

This study at the end will enlighten the board of educational sector on the implication of academic successes.

 

1.7. Scope of the Study

This study is intended to investigate the role of instructional materials in pupils’ academic performance, using some selected secondary schools in Federal capital territory.

 

1.8. Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms have been defined operationally.

  • Instructional materials: instructional materials refers to human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improve and promote teaching and learning activities.
  • Academic performance: is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution attained their short or long-term educational goals.
  • Academic achievement: ability to attain success in studies.

 

1.9. Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research  hypotheses,  objectives  of  the study, the  significance  of  the  study,   the scope  and  limitations  of  the  study  and  finally the  organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework. Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument.  Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings. Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

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