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ABSTRACT

Increasing population level, booming economy, rapid urbanization and the rise in community living standards have greatly accelerated the municipal solid waste generation rate in Minna metropolis. With about 0.22kg/person/day solid waste is generated and over 20 tons of wastes are dumped in dumping site daily. The main thrust of this study is to carry carryout the assessment of the current practices and commitment to sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSW) of Minna metropolis. The study approach involved the estimation of the quantity of municipal solid waste generated, evaluation of the segregation practices and distribution of structured questionnaires. A daily inventory of each district was carried out, followed by the evaluation of the status of waste management. The results shows that total estimate of municipal solid waste generated per week were 2,312.1kg. The waste comprises of paper waste which amounted to about 31.62% of the total waste, plastic waste which amounted to about 16.80% of the total waste, garbage waste which amounted to about 9.62% of the total waste, polythene waste which amounted to about 18.17% of the total waste and metal waste which amounted to about 23.79% of the total municipal solid waste generated in the metropolis. Also, Auto Cad land development software was used to extract the map of the entire metropolis showing the road network, location of waste bins, land uses and other valuable information‟s in a shape file. Consequently, in order to optimize the route for collection and transportation of MSW, and ensure cost effectiveness for waste management authority, total distances covered by the vehicles have been reduced from 196989.0m to 151791.1m, likewise the time will reduced from 1525.9min to 1153.1min respectively. Finally a workable solution was proffered for the waste management authority, in order to help in controlling waste generated, and further provide alternative means of revenue generation through the sales of recyclable materials.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii
CERTIFICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
DEDICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………………………………………………………………………………………….. vi
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vii
TABLE OF CONTENT …………………………………………………………………………………………… viii
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xi
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………………………………………………… xiii
CHAPTER ONE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Background of the Study ………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Statement of Problem ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.3 Aim and Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.4 Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………….. 5
1.5 Scope of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
CHAPTER TWO ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
2.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
2.2 Overview of Fundamental Concepts ………………………………………………………………… 7
2.2.1 Review of Activities of Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) 7
ix
2.2.2 Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste ……………………………………………………… 8
2.2.3 Treatment and Disposal Options ……………………………………………………………….. 10
2.2.4 Land Filling ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
2.2.5 Sanitary Landfills …………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
2.2.6 Incinerator ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
2.2.7 Recycle Method ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
2.2.8 Open Dumping ………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
2.2.9 The Biological, Chemical & Physical Composting Processes ……………………….. 15
2.2.10 Biological Processes …………………………………………………………………………………. 15
2.2.11 Chemical Processes ……………………………………………………………………………………… 18
2.2.12 Environmental Aspects in waste managements……………………………………………. 19
2.2.13 Liquid Waste Management ……………………………………………………………………….. 19
2.2.14 Environmental Challenges on Solid Waste Management ………………………………. 20
2.3 Review of Related Studies on Solid Waste Management ………………………………….. 21
CHAPTER THREE ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
MATERIALS AND METHODS ………………………………………………………………………………… 24
3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
3.2 Materials Used…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
3.3 Working principle of Global Positioning System (GPS) …………………………………… 24
3.4 Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
3.4.1 Methods of Data Collection from Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA). ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
x
3.4.2 Specification of Machineries. …………………………………………………………………….. 27
3.4.3 Method used for Executing the Research Work ……………………………………………. 27
3.5 Questionnaire Distribution ……………………………………………………………………………. 28
3.4.3 Summary Chart of the Methodology …………………………………………………………… 30
CHAPTER FOUR …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ……………………………………………………………………………….. 32
4.1 Results ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
4.2 Generation of a Data Base for the Study Area …………………………………………………. 45
4.3 Development of a Recyclable Programme ………………………………………………………. 54
CHAPTER FIVE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ………………………………………………………….. 56
5.1 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
5.2 Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 57
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
APPENDIX A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
SECTION B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
APPENDIX B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The term Municipal solid wastes (MSW) is a composition of both organic and inorganic materials generated from series of human activities in industrial sites, domestic households, commercial centers and other institutional workshops. The presence of MSW in a society is a great problem if not well managed due to its ability to induce environmental degradation.(Suberu et al., 2012).
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one ofthe critical environmental challenges of quick urbandevelopment that developing countries, including Iran, face(Shamshiry et al., 2011).
Management of waste encompasses a complex set of potential impacts on health, safety, and environment. It represents a “reverse” production process; the “product” is removal of surplus materials. Solid waste management becomes necessary and relevant for every governmentto provide for its residents. While service levels, environmental impacts and costs vary dramatically, solid waste management is arguably the most important municipal service and serves as a prerequisite for other municipal action. However, some wastes are not suitable for recycling. „For the no recyclable fractions, an energy recoverymethod becomes essential because it can reducethe use of fossil fuels. At the same time, it can also minimize the environmental and health problems of wastedisposal,unlikethelandfill alternative‟ (Ryu, 2010).
Increasing population levels, booming economy, rapid urbanizationand the rise in community living standards have greatlyaccelerated the municipal solid waste generation rate in developingcountries(Guerrero et al., 2012; Minghua et al., 2009).Municipalities, usually
2
responsible for waste management in the cities, have challenges to provide an effective and efficient system to the inhabitants. However, they often face problems beyond the ability of the municipal authority to tackle‟mainly due to lack of organization, financial resources, complexity and system multi dimensionality(Guerrero et al., 2012)
Furthermore, globalization is accelerating by-products of an urban lifestyle, is growing even faster than the rate of urbanization.Thus, an increasing number of populations in urban cities cause an increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Therefore, operational efficiency of waste management depends upon the active participation of both the municipal agency and the citizen‟s participation in decision making, community awareness and social apathy for contributing in solutions (Henry et al., 2006)
Niger state, one of the states in Nigeria with a wider landmass, an attraction center for tourism, agricultural and commerce among other economic value(Maji, 2014). Minna, being the capital of Niger state has an estimated population to be 3,954,772 (population census 2006). Thus, the increasing number of population has resulted to an increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation.Owing to the structure of the society changes from agricultural with low-density and widespread population to urban, high-density population. Owing to this ever increasing waste, there is need to be balanced with the provision of adequate waste collection transportation system.
3
Figure 1.1: Map of Minna and its Environs
Source: (Niger State Government, 2000)
Minna possesses fertile land as a cherished asset and potentials are yet to be fully explored. The rich annual rainfall and the wide variety of mineral and agricultural resources all attest to
4
the economic potential. Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Niger state as nearly 70 per cent of the population depends either directly or indirectly on it for their livelihood. The state is one of the largest and most fertile agricultural lands in the country (Maji, 2014).
Given the existence of abundant uncultivated arable land and its great agricultural and mineral resources, Niger state government has put in place incentives to woo potential investors to the state. These include the establishment of industrial estates and easy acquisition of land for development purposes.In addition to these, the existence in the state of three big hydroelectric power stations, alsoNiger state has adequate industrial power. Furthermore, the state capital is not only linked to all the local government headquarters, but the entire state is transverse with interregional roads linking the state from north to south as well as east to west(Maji, 2014).
Minna Municipal comprises the following districts: Chanchaga, SabonGari, Bosso, KeterenGwari, Zarumai, SaukaKahuta, Maitumbi, Limawa, „F‟Layout, Up Hill, Tunga West, Tunga East and Kpakungu. Sub-districts that have the highest point of waste collection services are Kpakungu, Bosso, Maitumbi, Tunga West and Tunga East respectively(Sallah, 2015). The Limitation of the number of waste vehicles and existing waste collection routes cause waste hauling inefficiency. This thus causes the large pile of waste surrounding the neighborhood.
5
1.2 Statement of Problem
It has been observed that the existing municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in minna metropolis is suffering from a lack of real plan for an effective vehicle routes as well as collection station locations. The existing system is largely based on experience, which leads to high cost of spending by the state government. This problem leads to poor management and has made it necessary for continuous research aiming towards achieving an effective route optimization for municipal solid waste. Thus, this study is aimed at addressing this by employing the use of Geo informatics to ensure and provide good management system for Minna metropolis.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research work is to optimize the route for municipal solid waste management for Minnametropolis. The specific objectives of this study therefore are:
1. To carry out an assessment of waste management system ofminna metropolis.
2. To optimize the route for waste collection and transportation using a hand held GPS
3. To proffer a workable solution to the municipal solid waste management system of the city.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will add more knowledge on the existing literatureand will act as supportive insights for further research on the route optimization ofmunicipal solid waste in Minnamunicipality. The study will help the Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA), to have the road network map within their reach, rather than using the old method of mere assumptions for their vehicle routes. The study will also suggest measures for an effective utilization of recyclable materials in order to help the government to maximize its
6
benefits. Lastly the study will help municipal authorities to be able to lessen high cost expenditure incurred in managing waste, and at the same time ease methods for waste disposal within the city of Minna.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope for this research work (route optimization of municipal solid waste) is mainly to be able to develop a route map of MSW for minna metropolis, using a hand held Global Positioning System (GPS), and to proffer solutions to municipal solid waste management practice in minna municipality. However this research work is not meant to analyze the potentialities for the renewable energy for municipal solid waste.INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The term Municipal solid wastes (MSW) is a composition of both organic and inorganic materials generated from series of human activities in industrial sites, domestic households, commercial centers and other institutional workshops. The presence of MSW in a society is a great problem if not well managed due to its ability to induce environmental degradation.(Suberu et al., 2012).
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one ofthe critical environmental challenges of quick urbandevelopment that developing countries, including Iran, face(Shamshiry et al., 2011).
Management of waste encompasses a complex set of potential impacts on health, safety, and environment. It represents a “reverse” production process; the “product” is removal of surplus materials. Solid waste management becomes necessary and relevant for every governmentto provide for its residents. While service levels, environmental impacts and costs vary dramatically, solid waste management is arguably the most important municipal service and serves as a prerequisite for other municipal action. However, some wastes are not suitable for recycling. „For the no recyclable fractions, an energy recoverymethod becomes essential because it can reducethe use of fossil fuels. At the same time, it can also minimize the environmental and health problems of wastedisposal,unlikethelandfill alternative‟ (Ryu, 2010).
Increasing population levels, booming economy, rapid urbanizationand the rise in community living standards have greatlyaccelerated the municipal solid waste generation rate in developingcountries(Guerrero et al., 2012; Minghua et al., 2009).Municipalities, usually
2
responsible for waste management in the cities, have challenges to provide an effective and efficient system to the inhabitants. However, they often face problems beyond the ability of the municipal authority to tackle‟mainly due to lack of organization, financial resources, complexity and system multi dimensionality(Guerrero et al., 2012)
Furthermore, globalization is accelerating by-products of an urban lifestyle, is growing even faster than the rate of urbanization.Thus, an increasing number of populations in urban cities cause an increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Therefore, operational efficiency of waste management depends upon the active participation of both the municipal agency and the citizen‟s participation in decision making, community awareness and social apathy for contributing in solutions (Henry et al., 2006)
Niger state, one of the states in Nigeria with a wider landmass, an attraction center for tourism, agricultural and commerce among other economic value(Maji, 2014). Minna, being the capital of Niger state has an estimated population to be 3,954,772 (population census 2006). Thus, the increasing number of population has resulted to an increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation.Owing to the structure of the society changes from agricultural with low-density and widespread population to urban, high-density population. Owing to this ever increasing waste, there is need to be balanced with the provision of adequate waste collection transportation system.
3
Figure 1.1: Map of Minna and its Environs
Source: (Niger State Government, 2000)
Minna possesses fertile land as a cherished asset and potentials are yet to be fully explored. The rich annual rainfall and the wide variety of mineral and agricultural resources all attest to
4
the economic potential. Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Niger state as nearly 70 per cent of the population depends either directly or indirectly on it for their livelihood. The state is one of the largest and most fertile agricultural lands in the country (Maji, 2014).
Given the existence of abundant uncultivated arable land and its great agricultural and mineral resources, Niger state government has put in place incentives to woo potential investors to the state. These include the establishment of industrial estates and easy acquisition of land for development purposes.In addition to these, the existence in the state of three big hydroelectric power stations, alsoNiger state has adequate industrial power. Furthermore, the state capital is not only linked to all the local government headquarters, but the entire state is transverse with interregional roads linking the state from north to south as well as east to west(Maji, 2014).
Minna Municipal comprises the following districts: Chanchaga, SabonGari, Bosso, KeterenGwari, Zarumai, SaukaKahuta, Maitumbi, Limawa, „F‟Layout, Up Hill, Tunga West, Tunga East and Kpakungu. Sub-districts that have the highest point of waste collection services are Kpakungu, Bosso, Maitumbi, Tunga West and Tunga East respectively(Sallah, 2015). The Limitation of the number of waste vehicles and existing waste collection routes cause waste hauling inefficiency. This thus causes the large pile of waste surrounding the neighborhood.
5
1.2 Statement of Problem
It has been observed that the existing municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in minna metropolis is suffering from a lack of real plan for an effective vehicle routes as well as collection station locations. The existing system is largely based on experience, which leads to high cost of spending by the state government. This problem leads to poor management and has made it necessary for continuous research aiming towards achieving an effective route optimization for municipal solid waste. Thus, this study is aimed at addressing this by employing the use of Geo informatics to ensure and provide good management system for Minna metropolis.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research work is to optimize the route for municipal solid waste management for Minnametropolis. The specific objectives of this study therefore are:
1. To carry out an assessment of waste management system ofminna metropolis.
2. To optimize the route for waste collection and transportation using a hand held GPS
3. To proffer a workable solution to the municipal solid waste management system of the city.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will add more knowledge on the existing literatureand will act as supportive insights for further research on the route optimization ofmunicipal solid waste in Minnamunicipality. The study will help the Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA), to have the road network map within their reach, rather than using the old method of mere assumptions for their vehicle routes. The study will also suggest measures for an effective utilization of recyclable materials in order to help the government to maximize its
6
benefits. Lastly the study will help municipal authorities to be able to lessen high cost expenditure incurred in managing waste, and at the same time ease methods for waste disposal within the city of Minna.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope for this research work (route optimization of municipal solid waste) is mainly to be able to develop a route map of MSW for minna metropolis, using a hand held Global Positioning System (GPS), and to proffer solutions to municipal solid waste management practice in minna municipality. However this research work is not meant to analyze the potentialities for the renewable energy for municipal solid waste.INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The term Municipal solid wastes (MSW) is a composition of both organic and inorganic materials generated from series of human activities in industrial sites, domestic households, commercial centers and other institutional workshops. The presence of MSW in a society is a great problem if not well managed due to its ability to induce environmental degradation.(Suberu et al., 2012).
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one ofthe critical environmental challenges of quick urbandevelopment that developing countries, including Iran, face(Shamshiry et al., 2011).
Management of waste encompasses a complex set of potential impacts on health, safety, and environment. It represents a “reverse” production process; the “product” is removal of surplus materials. Solid waste management becomes necessary and relevant for every governmentto provide for its residents. While service levels, environmental impacts and costs vary dramatically, solid waste management is arguably the most important municipal service and serves as a prerequisite for other municipal action. However, some wastes are not suitable for recycling. „For the no recyclable fractions, an energy recoverymethod becomes essential because it can reducethe use of fossil fuels. At the same time, it can also minimize the environmental and health problems of wastedisposal,unlikethelandfill alternative‟ (Ryu, 2010).
Increasing population levels, booming economy, rapid urbanizationand the rise in community living standards have greatlyaccelerated the municipal solid waste generation rate in developingcountries(Guerrero et al., 2012; Minghua et al., 2009).Municipalities, usually
2
responsible for waste management in the cities, have challenges to provide an effective and efficient system to the inhabitants. However, they often face problems beyond the ability of the municipal authority to tackle‟mainly due to lack of organization, financial resources, complexity and system multi dimensionality(Guerrero et al., 2012)
Furthermore, globalization is accelerating by-products of an urban lifestyle, is growing even faster than the rate of urbanization.Thus, an increasing number of populations in urban cities cause an increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Therefore, operational efficiency of waste management depends upon the active participation of both the municipal agency and the citizen‟s participation in decision making, community awareness and social apathy for contributing in solutions (Henry et al., 2006)
Niger state, one of the states in Nigeria with a wider landmass, an attraction center for tourism, agricultural and commerce among other economic value(Maji, 2014). Minna, being the capital of Niger state has an estimated population to be 3,954,772 (population census 2006). Thus, the increasing number of population has resulted to an increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation.Owing to the structure of the society changes from agricultural with low-density and widespread population to urban, high-density population. Owing to this ever increasing waste, there is need to be balanced with the provision of adequate waste collection transportation system.
3
Figure 1.1: Map of Minna and its Environs
Source: (Niger State Government, 2000)
Minna possesses fertile land as a cherished asset and potentials are yet to be fully explored. The rich annual rainfall and the wide variety of mineral and agricultural resources all attest to
4
the economic potential. Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Niger state as nearly 70 per cent of the population depends either directly or indirectly on it for their livelihood. The state is one of the largest and most fertile agricultural lands in the country (Maji, 2014).
Given the existence of abundant uncultivated arable land and its great agricultural and mineral resources, Niger state government has put in place incentives to woo potential investors to the state. These include the establishment of industrial estates and easy acquisition of land for development purposes.In addition to these, the existence in the state of three big hydroelectric power stations, alsoNiger state has adequate industrial power. Furthermore, the state capital is not only linked to all the local government headquarters, but the entire state is transverse with interregional roads linking the state from north to south as well as east to west(Maji, 2014).
Minna Municipal comprises the following districts: Chanchaga, SabonGari, Bosso, KeterenGwari, Zarumai, SaukaKahuta, Maitumbi, Limawa, „F‟Layout, Up Hill, Tunga West, Tunga East and Kpakungu. Sub-districts that have the highest point of waste collection services are Kpakungu, Bosso, Maitumbi, Tunga West and Tunga East respectively(Sallah, 2015). The Limitation of the number of waste vehicles and existing waste collection routes cause waste hauling inefficiency. This thus causes the large pile of waste surrounding the neighborhood.
5
1.2 Statement of Problem
It has been observed that the existing municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in minna metropolis is suffering from a lack of real plan for an effective vehicle routes as well as collection station locations. The existing system is largely based on experience, which leads to high cost of spending by the state government. This problem leads to poor management and has made it necessary for continuous research aiming towards achieving an effective route optimization for municipal solid waste. Thus, this study is aimed at addressing this by employing the use of Geo informatics to ensure and provide good management system for Minna metropolis.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research work is to optimize the route for municipal solid waste management for Minnametropolis. The specific objectives of this study therefore are:
1. To carry out an assessment of waste management system ofminna metropolis.
2. To optimize the route for waste collection and transportation using a hand held GPS
3. To proffer a workable solution to the municipal solid waste management system of the city.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will add more knowledge on the existing literatureand will act as supportive insights for further research on the route optimization ofmunicipal solid waste in Minnamunicipality. The study will help the Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA), to have the road network map within their reach, rather than using the old method of mere assumptions for their vehicle routes. The study will also suggest measures for an effective utilization of recyclable materials in order to help the government to maximize its
6
benefits. Lastly the study will help municipal authorities to be able to lessen high cost expenditure incurred in managing waste, and at the same time ease methods for waste disposal within the city of Minna.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope for this research work (route optimization of municipal solid waste) is mainly to be able to develop a route map of MSW for minna metropolis, using a hand held Global Positioning System (GPS), and to proffer solutions to municipal solid waste management practice in minna municipality. However this research work is not meant to analyze the potentialities for the renewable energy for municipal solid waste.

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