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Sexual Appeals In Television Advertising A Content Analysis Of Commercials Aimed At Teenagers On Dstv Station Of Your Choice

Abstract

This study was on Sexual appeals in television Advertising a content analysis of commercials aimed at teenagers on DStv station of your choice.  The total population for the study is 200 residents in PH, Rivers State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made married men, married women, students, and youths were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.

Chapter one

Introduction

1.1Background of the study

Over the years, much work has addressed the impact of physical attractive ness on communication effectiveness and attitude change. However, the manner in which sex appeals are presented in TV commercials (Downs &Harrison, 1985; Lovdal, 1989; Sole & Kurzbard, 1986) has received relatively little attention. In particular, researchers have yet to fully examine the ways teenagers are portrayed in television commercials. Unlike magazines, television is subject to indecency restrictions, owing to its ubiquitous reach. Hence, the latitude for sexiness in television commercials is much narrower than that in magazine advertisements (Lin, 1997). The use of sex appeals in commercials dates to the dawn of advertising (Trachtenberg, 1986). Although this study doesn’t address the effects of physically attractive presenters, their widespread use reflects Madison Avenue’s faith in the effectiveness of such appeals (Beatty, 1996).

The study of content analysis of teenager’s television advertising has become very interesting area in academic research and hence there have been increasing research in this area in recent time. The whole idea about the content analysis revolved around understanding the commercial processes involved while teenager view advertising. This also considers the manner in which children perceive and react to these advertisements. Content analysis was the research methodology generally employed to explore the environment of children television advertising. It was thus a relatively new methodology for consumer research in the 1970’s but already broadly use by other research areas such as political sciences, journalism, social psychology and communications research (Alexander et al., 1998; Mc Neal, 1987; Kasserjian, 1977). There has been surprisingly little attention by researcher to the study of content analysis. However, it must be mention about the works carried out earlier in this area by scholars such as Winick et al. (1973); Barcus (1975); Dolittle and Pepper (1975) and Cotunga (1988). The works of Alexander et al. (1988) and Tseng (2001) are updated version of these earlier works. Previous content analysis studies had focus primarily on what is being advertised but scholar in recent studies had attempted to examine what is being said to children and how it is being said (Palan and Lacznicak, 1988).

This sexual revolution can be seen in a number of changes in society and women’s attitude towards sexual culture in the period between 1995 and 2005. Pop icons such as icons such as Britney Spears featured in music videos becoming increasingly unclothed (Levy, 2005) while Christina Aguilera borrowed from the codes of pornography in her self-presentation with a song and album featuring the titles ‘Dirrty’ and ‘Stripped’ (Gill, 2008). The music channel MTV has been accused of showcasing music videos that contain sexist and sexual messages (Gan, Mitrook and Zillmann, 1997). There were a several objections made by the National Coalition on Television Violence, Women against Pornography, and church groups who rallied against sex and violence in music videos (Swan, 1985). Parents were also in an uproar, criticising music and videos for their glorification of drugs and sex and for their degradation of women (Alexander, 1990; McCormack, 1985).

Content analysis of advertising is a valuable tool for predicting and understanding advertising effectiveness. Not only in advertising research, but also in general media-effects research, it is widely understood that any effect of media content is enhanced or reduced by what the recipient makes of it. One important antecedent of the effectiveness of persuasive message is the enjoyment triggered by its content. Content analysis of advertising can, therefore, be a useful instrument to improve our understanding of advertising effectiveness.

Statement of the problem

To this end, we have investigated the appeals that prevail in commercials aimed at different target groups. An appeal can be considered one of the most fundamental and concrete indicators of advertisers’ underlying strategies to reach different audience groups. Additionally, an advertising appeal can be described as the persuasive strategy selected by the advertiser to make the product attractive to the consumer. It is the specific way in which a commercial relates to certain tastes and/or preferences of a target group. Based on this the researcher wants to investigate sexual appeals in television advertising a content analysis of commercials aimed at teenagers on DStv station (MTV base)

 

Objective of the study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To find out how teenagers define sexual appeal in advertising
  2. To ascertain the relationship between sexual appeals in MTV base and commercial aimed at teenagers
  3. To ascertain the effect of sexual appeals in MTV base advertising on teenagers

Research hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0: there is no relationship between sexual appeals in MTV base and commercial aimed at teenagers

H1: there is relationship between sexual appeals in MTV base and commercial aimed at teenagers

H02: there is no effect of sexual appeals in MTV base advertising on teenagers

H2: there is effect of sexual appeals in MTV base advertising on teenagers

Significance of the study

The study will be very significant to students and the entire populace. The study will give a clear insight on the sexual appeals in television advertising a content analysis of commercials aimed at teenagers on DStv station of your choice. The study will also serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on the related topic

Scope and limitation of the study

The scope of the study covers Sexual appeals in television Advertising a content analysis of commercials aimed at teenagers on DStv station of your choice.

The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Sexual appeal: Sexual attraction is attraction on the basis of sexual desire or the quality of arousing such interest. Sexual attractiveness or sex appeal is an individual’s ability to attract the sexual or erotic interests of other people, and is a factor in sexual selection or mate choice.

Advertising: Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are typically businesses wishing to promote their products or services.

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