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ABSTRACT

This research work is aimed at finding out the roles and benefits of sports on the physical health of the people. The study was carried out in a selected part of the University of Benin. A questionnaire with twenty questions was designed and administered to areas covered. A total sixty-five students were selected for sampling.

From the data collected and analyzed with simple percentage, it was discovered that majority of people know the roles and benefits of sports on the physical health of the people.

Judging from analysis it is dear that people attitude towards sports has changed positively therefore for the people who have negative attitude some recommendations were made.

viThe Government authority should organize public talk shows, print handbills etc to enlighten people on the roles and benefits of sports on the physical health of the people.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITTLE PAGES

Certification – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – iii

Dedication – – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – iv

Acknowledgements- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – v

Abstract- – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – vi

Table of contents – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – vii

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction – – – – – – – – — – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1

Background of the study- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – 1

Statement of problem – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 6

Purpose of the Study- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — 7

Research Questions- – – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 8

Significance of the study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 9

Scope /delimitation of the study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 9Definition of terms – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – 10

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CHAPTER TWO :REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES

Roles and benefits of sports on the physicalhealth of

the people- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – ——-15

Active participation in sporting activities impact on the physical

health of the people – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -25

Gender difference influence sports participation thereby forming

a hindrance in getting a good health status- – — – – – – – – – – – — – – -27

Awareness of about the benefits and roles of sport on their physical

health condition- – – – — – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – -32

CHAPTER THREE

Method of the study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – -37

Research design – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -38

Population of the study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – 38

Sample and Sampling Techniques – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 40

Research Instrument- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -41

Validity of instrument – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 42

Reliability of instrument- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43

Administration of instrument – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -44

viiMethod of data Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – 45

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS ANDDISCUSSION OF RESULTS

Data Analysis and presentation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 44

Discussion of findings – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – 61

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

Summary – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – 64

Conclusion – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 64

Recommendation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -66

REFRENCES — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — ——- – – – -68

Appendix I – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – – —- – – – 74

Appendix II – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 81

viiiix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

The roles of sports in our daily lifestyle cannot be overemphasized as much claims have been placed on its values, importance, prospects , goals and achievements which is all truly proven beyond facts and contestation. It is to be noted that we take into consideration that a little work has been done on the roles and benefits of sports on the physical health of the people in as much to say devising a plan or an action intended to accomplish specific goals or outcomes in sports as well as using sports as a medium to produce the needed effect in the human body.

1

Sport has various definitions given by various sources. Sport can be defined as an activity involving the physical exertion and skill in which the individual and team competes against one another for recreation or entertainment (oxford learner’s dictionary,2014).Sport is athletic and uses physical or competitive skills. Sport has been defined as a form of physical activity that is institutionalized with defined rules and regulations and accepted and governed by international bodies such as international Amateur athletics federation (IAAF),International federation of football association(FIFA),National basketball association (NBA) e.t.c.

Lombardo(2012) argued that sports began as a way for man to develop the skills needed for primitive hunting and warfare; then develop to act primarily as a lek where athletes display and male evaluators or spectators evaluate the qualities of potential allies and rivals.

2

Ruminations about the origins and functions of sports have typically focused on the cultural components (Ashe,1998; Carroll,2008& Guttman,2004) . sports has always been manifestation of man’s skill in his culture and has been one of the ways man has survived in his harsh weather conditions and climate. In hunting and warfare ,despite their different focus on cultural hypothesis about the functions of sports concludes that sport likely had its origin as a way for men to develop and practice hunting skills (Caroll,2006).The relationship between hunting and sports includes chasing ,hitting targets with projectiles and stalking is clear. Because, primitive warfare used the same skills some have argued that training for wars the source of all sports (Chick,loy,Miracle1997;Loy& Iteseketh,1995&Sipies1973).

3

The characteristics of animal play suggests that sports likely originated as play. The play of juvenile mammals including human often mimics behaviours(example is capturing prey ,escaping from predators , fighting need for survival(fagen,1981).human play behaviours also mimic those used in many sports examples are running, chasing ,competitions ,throwing and intercepting projectiles.

The benefits of sport is seen in physical activity of play especially the rough and rumble play (RNT)characteristics of males(Dipietro,1981; Humphreys and Smith, 1998) while RNT provides physical practice for fighting and hunting(Smith 1982 & Symon,1978).It is also simultaneously allow juveniles to assess physical strength and skills of others( Smith 1982& Paquette 1994).Thus RNT can function as a means to develop and maintain leadership and dominance among groups (Waters & Sroufe,1983; Pellangia &Smith,1998). The assessment of others can also be achieved at low cost by observation.

4

The healthy people (2000)in their goals for the nation health have recognised the importance of physical activity and have included physical activity goals in lifestyle (The healthy people,2000).the bases of federal government nutrition related programmes included physical guidance to maintain and improve :-30 minutes or more of moderate intensity physical activity on all or most ,days of the week(Dietary Guidelines for America ,1995)

The benefits of physical activity in human development and lifestyle have been extolled through out western history but it was not until the second half of this century that scientific evidence supporting these believe began to accumulate.

According to the WHO(2005) experience and scientific evidence shows that regular participation in appropriate physical activity and sport provides people of both sexes and all ages and conditions ,including persons with disabilities with a wide range off physical, social and mental health benefits .physical activity and sport support strategies to improve diet and discourage the use of tobacco , alcohol and drugs. As well, physical activity and sport help reduce , violence ,enhance functional capacity and promote social interaction and integration (WHO,2003).

5

A good physical health condition is important for every individual as it reduces illness risk and even death risk due to disease conditions. The good physical health condition is when the body is functioning as it was designed to function. These can be achieved by participating in sports regularly

Statement of Problem

In our present day society, there is a high prevalence of disease which is due to inactive or lack of participation in sporting activities, some of these health diseases and challenges include obesity, cardiovascular diseases, bone diseases.

Due to the nature of the wealth and status of some individuals they tend to develop a sedentary lifestyle which denies them of getting the health be benefits of sports.

6

Ignorance of the benefits and roles of sports to the general health and wellbeing has, led to the non participation in sporting activities and exercises.

Gender difference is another problem that has hindered the participation in sports. Most societies tend to believe that men should be involved and active in sporting and physical activities than women.

Although some persons do have interest in sporting activities the activities the lack of sporting facilities and equipments posses hindrance to their participation in sport thereby not getting the benefits in sports.

Purpose of the Study

7

This study primarily aims to investigate the roles and benefits of sports or the physical health of people. The study is also set out to achieve the following specific objectives.

Establish the significant roles and benefits of sports on the physical health of the people.

Establish the physical health of the people gets improved on with active sports participation.

Establish if the people gets adequate education and enlightenment on the benefits and roles which sport plays on the maintenance of a good health status and condition

Establish the influence which the wealth, status and occupation of people have on the physical health benefits they get in sport participation.

Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

What are the roles and benefits of sports on the physcal health of the people?

8

Does active participation in sporting activities impact on the physical health of the people?

What is the awareness of about the benefits and roles of sport on their physical health condition?

Does gender difference influence sports participation thereby forming a hindrance in getting a good health status?

Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is to ensure that the people get the physical health benefits of participation in sports and also ensure that more awareness is created for the enlightenment and educating of the roles and benefits that are in sports participation.

Scope/Delimitation of the Study

This study is delimited to students in faculty of education and the roles and benefits of sports on the physical health of the people.

9

Definition of Terms

Sports: it can be defined as an activity involving the physical exertion and skill in which the individual and team competes against one another for recreation or entertainment

Health: it is defined as the optimal wellbeing that contributes to quality of life

Physical Health: it is defined as the condition of body that. is when the body is functioning as it was designed to function.

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