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The study examined traditional weaving as a popular craft among many ethnic groups in Nigeria and also reviewed related literature on the subject matter. It surveyed Ondo traditional hand woven fabrics and identifies alaari, sanmiyan, etu, ogungunelu and petuje as the major traditional ones used in Ondo. The study is also aimed at modifying the Ondo traditional hand woven fabrics by adopting the traditional weaving techniques, with the view that, they could be adapted to suit fashion trends in contemporary Nigerian society. The research designs adopted were the descriptive survey and scientific research strategies, while the study samples comprised thirty (30) traditional weavers, two hundred and fifty (250) Ondo traditional hand woven fabrics users and two hundred and fifty (250) potential users (youth) of the modified hand woven fabrics. Well structured questionnaire and photographs were the two instruments used for data collection. Data collected were subjected to analysis by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The descriptive statistics, of percentage, mean and standard deviation were employed to analyse the data collected. The findings of the study indicate that, the traditional value attached to Ondo traditional hand woven fabrics is in the areas of: quality and name, prestige, durability, colour, traditional design, usefulness, high premium (money), culture, use for commemoration of events, purchasing, re-using and recycling and sustainance for posterity. Based on the weighted average, that is, the overall mean value of the weavers‟ perception, which is 3.9 out of the 5.00 maximum value that is obtainable and 79.3% when converted to percentage, it can be inferred that, the weavers have positive perception about the modified Ondo traditional hand woven fabrics produced by the researcher. Also based on the weighted average, that is, the
overall mean value of the perception of the potential users which is 4.10 out of the 5.00 maximum value that is obtainable and 82% when converted to percentage, it can be inferred that, the potential users have the same positive perception about the modified hand woven fabrics. The study concludes that, modified hand woven fabrics, when combined with other suitable factory made fabrics like plain Ankara or Linen and sewn into different fashionable contemporary styles like: gown, skirts and blouses, tops, buba and Sokoto are suitable for use by male and female as casuals, formal and ceremonial wears. Also, the uniqueness of the hand woven fabrics will make them acceptable and even red carpet choice for all categories of people.





Cover pages – – – – – – – – – i Fly Leaf – – – – – – – – – ii Title Page – – – – – – – – – iii Declaration – – – – – – – – – iv Certification – – – – – – – – – v Dedication – – – – – – – – – vi Acknowledgments – – – – – – – – viii Abstract – – – – – – – – – .ix Table of Content – – – – – – – – xi List of Figures – – – – – – – – – xvi List of Tables – – – – – – – – – xvii List of Plates – – – – – – – – – xviii Abbreviations – – – – – – – – – xxiii Definitions – – – – – – – – – xxiv CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 5 1.3 Aim of the Study – – – – – – – 7 1.4 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – 7 1.5 Research Questions of the Study – – – – – 8 1.6 Justification of the Study – – – – – – 9
1.7 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 9
1.8 Basic assumption of the Study – – – – – 12 1.9 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – 12 1.10 Physical Geography of Ondo Town – – – – – 13 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 15 2.2 Origin of the Ondo people – – – – – – 15 2.3 A Survey of Ondo Traditional Weaving – – – – 16 2.4 Traditional Premium of Ondo Traditional Hand Woven Fabrics – 21 2.4.1 Age of the Hand Woven Fabrics – – – – – 21 2.4.2 Design – – – – – – – – – 23 2.4.3 The Yarn of the Hand Woven Fabrics – – – – 26 2.4.4 Textile Materials (Dye) – – – – – – 27 2.5 Traditional Use of Ondo Hand Woven Fabrics – – – 27 2.5.1 The use of Alaari Woven Fabrics in Ondo – – – – 28 2.5.2 The use of Alaari Woven Fabrics in Yester Years – – – 32 2.5.3 The use of Alaari Woven Fabrics in Contemporary Times – – 35 2.5.4 The use of Sanmiyan, Etu and Petuje Woven Fabrics – – 37 2.6 Traditional Hand Woven Fabrics in Yoruba Land: An Overview – 39 2.7 Structure of Horizontal Loom – – – – – – 44 2.8 Production of Traditional Hand Woven Fabrics in some Yoruba Towns 46 2.8.1 Iseyin – – – – – – – – 46 2.8.2 Oyo – – – – – – – – – 47
2.8.3 Ilorin – – – – – – – – – 48
2.8.4 Ijebu Ode – – – – – – – – 49 2.8.5 Owo – – – – – – – – – 50 2.8.6 Abeokuta – – – – – – – – 52 2.8.7 Ado-Ekiti – – – – – – – – 52 2.8.8 Ido-Ekiti – – – – – – – – 53 2.9 Assessment and Comparison of Existing Weaving Methods, Technique, Tools and Materials with a view of Producing Modified Hand Woven Fabrics for Contemporary Fashion Trends – – – – 54 2.9.1 Weaving Techniques – – – – – – – 54 2.9.2 Weaving Tools and Materials – – – – – – 56 2.10 Comparison between Ondo Traditional Hand Woven Fabrics and those of other Yoruba Towns – – – – – – 61 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 63 3.2 Research Design – – – – – – – 63 3.3 Method for the Study – – – – – – – 63 3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – – 64 3.5 Sampling Techniques – – – – – – – 65 3.6 Data Collection – – – – – – – 65 3.7 The Production of Modified Ondo Hand Woven Fabrics – – 65 3.7.1 They are Lighter in Weight and Softer in Hand – – – 66 3.7.2 They are Wider in Stripe and Longer in Length – – – 66 3.7.3 The Modified Hand Woven Fabrics are also Better in Luster – 67 3.7.4 The Weaving Process – – – – – – – 67
3.7.5 Alaari Jama – – – – – – – – 70
3.7.6 Alaari Paba – – – – – – – – 71 3.7.7 Ogungunelu Paba Dudu – – – – – – 72 3.7.8 Ogungunelu stripe 2 – – – – – – – 73 3.7.9 Sanmiyan – – – – – – – – 74 3.7.10 Petuje – – – – – – – – – 75 3.7.11 Alaari Gunlodo – – – – – – – 76 3.8 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – 80 3.9 Validation of Research Instrument – – – – – 81 3.10 Data Analysis and Presentation – – – – – 81 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Demographic Information of Respondents – – – – 82 4.3 Answers to Research Questions – – – – – – 82 4.4 Discussion – – – – – – – – 114 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 118 5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 118 5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 121 5.4 Contribution to Knowledge – – – – – – 123 References – – – – – – – – – 126 Appendices – – – – – – – – – 131




INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study Traditional weaving is a popular craft among many ethnic groups in Nigeria. Weaving techniques, equipment, materials, designs and products are almost the same all over. The major equipment for traditional weaving is the loom and it is of two types, that is, the horizontal and the vertical loom. Although there are slight variations in the types of loom used by different ethnic groups across the country. In Yoruba land, though both sexes weave, a number of characteristics differentiate the cloth woven by men from that of women, chief among which is the loom type Traditionally, men weave on a horizontal that produce strip cloths of few inches wide, while the women weave on a vertical broad loom that produce cloth wider in breadth but much shorter in length than those produced by men (Asakitikpi 2007). The fact that the horizontal loom is widely used by men while the vertical loom is mainly used by women remains till date. The product of the loom, that is, hand woven fabrics (called aso-oke by the Yoruba people) has similar value and purpose within the different ethnic groups in Nigeria. Aso-oke, according to Okeke (1991) is the traditional cloth of the Yoruba people of South-Western Nigeria. The Iseyin people of Oyo State are central to the production of aso-oke.
These groups use hand woven fabrics as dress items ranging from everyday use (work cloths), cover cloth and commemoration of traditional events, such as traditional wedding, coronation, chieftaincy, age passage, burial of the aged among others, and also for religious and ritual purposes. Examples of such woven fabrics are sanyan,( called sanmiyan in Ondo. Sanmiyan will be used throughout this study) alaari, etu, shin-shin
and onjawu and so on, are sewn into different styles, such as, agbada, dansiki and sokoto for men, and iro, buba, iborun and gele for women. In a nut shell, the main focus of dressing was hand woven fabrics because there were no alternatives. Like the Yoruba hand woven fabrics, Saaka, (2010) noted that the Tiv hand woven fabrics, the Anger, the Tugudu, the kubeba and the BNARDA among others are also sewn into different styles by men and women. On the other hand, notable hand woven fabric of the Igbo people is the Akwete, mainly used by women as wrappers. Lamb and Holmes (1980), Afigbo and Okeke (1982), Goodlife (2010), Powerhouse Museum (2008), and Nwachukwu and Ibeabuchi (2012), all stated that, the Igbo are widely known for Akwete cloth weaving which is basically done by women.
In the same vein, the Ondo people‟s weaving practice, products and uses especially before independence is not different from the other Yoruba ethnic groups. In the past, women in Ondo planted cotton seeds and the cotton fibres were spun into yarns and the yarns subsequently woven into fabrics. Ademuleya (2002) and Adepeko (2008) in their study of the Ondo people and their weaving crafts revealed that, weaving was done mainly by women on the vertical loom and the product of their looms was called poku. Then, poku was used by women as wrapper, while it served as cover cloth (aso ibora) for men. There was also the evidence of silk weaving in Ondo. Silk from the anaphe caterpillars were manually processed into yarns for weaving at home while the worms were roasted and eaten as a special delicacy. Ene (1984) ascertains that, in Ondo, silk was from the wild anaphe caterpillars (called ewuuku in Ondo) was processed and spun by hand into a coarse thread used for weaving sanmiyan. He also mentioned that Ondo was
one of the major silk weaving centres in Yoruba land. He re-echoed his meeting with one Alfa Yesufu of 14 Igbonmoba Street in Ondo, whose sanmiyan silk cloth was the purest ever. Not only this, Alfa‟s family has practiced the art of silk weaving for at least one hundred and fifty years or even longer. Ene assumes they had done so from about the 18th century.
Ademuleya (2002) and Adepeko (2008) further indicated that woven fabric from the horizontal loom was introduced to Ondo from other Yoruba weaving towns such as, Iseyin and Ilorin. Not only this, decades ago male weavers and aso-oke traders from other aso-oke producing towns came and settled in Ondo with their crafts and products. Some of their generations after them are still in Ondo till date. They introduced the techniques of weaving on the horizontal loom to the Ondo people and since then, there have been female users of the horizontal loom. Their products include alaari, sanyan, etu, petuje and other aso-oke types of the Yoruba people. Then, woven fabrics were characterized with heavy weight, tight weaves and rough appearance, and were sewn into different but conventional Yoruba attires for male and female and were mostly used by the elderly for the commemoration of traditional events and other important ceremonies. When the attires are richly decorated, it distinguishes the wearer as rich or high in status. Apart from the conventional use of hand woven cloths, the Yoruba believe that the socio-cultural realities such as the display of wealth and affluence, religious activities, and rite of passage are common phenomenon in clothing culture. Hand woven cloths are thus made for protection, adornment and more especially in masquerade festivals (Aremu 1983, Ojo 1995, Diogu 2000). Although, inlay designs and motifs on the woven fabrics
are different and could be linked to culture, tradition and the religion of each ethnic group. Before contact with the Europeans, the abundant use of these hand woven fabrics swept across all ethnic groups in Nigeria, because there were little or no clothing alternatives for use. Hand woven fabrics of these various ethnic groups had some basic similarities, in terms of density in weight, tight weaves, rough appearance and generation of heat when worn. Ojo (2004) corroborates this finding and states that, for quite a long time, the old skill in weaving and designing of traditional hand woven fabrics (aso oke) have remained the same. There has not been an alternative market-type in designing and patterning of aso oke that could pose serious challenge to the existing type. It is against this background that the existing problem is noted for priority attention.
However, the post independence years in Nigeria experienced unprecedented influx of assorted and cheap fabrics and other clothing accessories from other nations of the world, hence, men and women, old and young had access to these fabrics. They bought and used them as alternative clothing items which they found to be more convenient, especially for use for their daily activities. Since then, the use of hand woven fabrics gradually began to be on the decline and brought about a change in fashion, taste, dress style and clothing culture of Nigerians generally. Therefore, contact with the Western dressing culture became an incentive for Nigerians to consider new fashion trends different from their traditional ways of dressing. For example, Akiga (1973) in Ahuwan (1994) found out that introduction of Islamic religion and occupation affected the Fulani mode of dressing. Initially the Fulani herd men wore mostly costume made of animal skin, and later
changed to the ones made from hand woven fabrics. Now in contemporary times, the herdsmen‟s costume, the loosely designed tops, are now sewn with different contemporary fabrics. Another tribe that has attempted this change in fashion is the Tiv, their heavily woven fabrics are now mainly used during cold seasons and for the celebration of traditional events. Saaka (2010) observed that in recent times, the Tiv fabrics have been used in many newly designed cloths such as the „Rainbow‟. Anger is another hand woven cloth of the Tiv Tribe. The most popularly recognized cloths of the Tiv ethnic identity are now designed in contemporary styles that could be easily worn by men and women. For example, women now sew anger cloth in fashionable styles like skirt and blouse combined with other synthetic materials. This change in dress styles has swept across all ethnic groups in Nigeria. The Ondo people are not left out, the change has informed and provided incentive to consider the modification of Ondo traditional hand woven fabrics to suit contemporary fashion trends in the Nigerian society which is the main thrust of this research work. 1.2 Statement of the problem
The use of traditional woven fabrics, aso-oke, has experienced a decline within the Yoruba community for a number of reasons. Principal among them is the advent of Europeans who introduced foreign culture in the aspect of clothing and fashion which appeared more convenient and internationally accepted. The result was a change in mindset of Nigerians towards their clothing culture, hence the European way of dressing was embraced and the use of shirts, skirts and blouses has seized the centre stage from aso-oke. This almost sent the use of traditional woven fabrics, especially for everyday use, into extinction.
However, the European way of dressing not withstanding, aso-oke still remains number one clothing item whenever it is time for traditional and cultural celebrations among the Yoruba ethnic group, especially among the Ondo people. Ademuleya (2002) observes that, notwithstanding, the distraction created by the arrival of the Colonial masters and the emergence of imported yarn and cheap fabrics, the Ondo people are known to have been consistent in their collection and use of aso-oke, especially the old types. Although, the Ondo people use the new types of aso-oke, their penchant and regard for the old types stands no parallel in Yoruba land because to them, the older the cloth, the more the premium placed on it within the Ondo community. In spite of the high esteem and reverence accorded these prestigious traditional fabrics, it seems youths, do not appreciate it, due to monotony in style, the weight of the fabric, difficult laundering processes and storage system among others. In order to encourage and sustain their interest in patronizing aso-oke, the traditional dress styles need to be modified and, for this to happen, there is the need to consider and adjust the styles of weaving to make the fabric lighter in weight and more convenient for everyday use, thus, is very pertinent.
Also, climatic change experienced globally in recent times has apparently necessitated a surge in fashion innovations. Warm climate prevails in Nigeria and with the global warming in recent times it appears we now have warmer seasons than cool. Therefore, the whole fashion system will have to adjust to climate change which may have profound effect on clothes and fashion. For example, in cold countries warm clothes that provide additional warmth are very popular to protect the body, while in warm countries like Nigeria, light weight and smart clothing that enhances the health and comfort of the
wearer is now the concern of clothing producers. In this regard, Kihler (1963) in Kucha (1989) noted that clothing must be designed with the comfort of the users in mind. Fabrics like the traditional hand woven ones are not conducive for our warm climate because they are heavy; being tightly woven and the yarn count is coarse. Adetoro (1972) and Eicher (1976) pointed out that, hand woven cloths may not be suitable for casual and office wears. Also the insatiable tastes of fashion conscious individuals to re-create hand woven fabrics to modern casual attires and dresses, have necessitated textile designers to seek new techniques and methods of production, Nchowa (1972) corroborates the identification of this problem and stressed further that the inability of the traditional aso-oke to be adapted for casual wears and other professional uniforms is a social problem that should be addressed by weaving experts. In order to make the use of hand woven fabrics more convenient, and encourage its popular use, the problem of this study is focusing therefore, on the modification of the Ondo traditional hand woven fabrics for greater appreciation beyond local boundaries. 1.3 Aim of the study The aim of this study is to carry out a survey of Ondo traditional woven fabrics (aso-oke) and to modify them by adapting the traditional weaving techniques. 1.4 The Objectives of the study The objectives of this study are to:
1. investigate details on Ondo traditional hand woven fabrics.
2. examine the traditional premium and use attached to Ondo traditional hand woven fabrics.
3. assess through comparative analysis the existing weaving techniques, tools and materials of the Ondo people and those of the other Yoruba communities.
4. identify the perception of Ondo traditional weavers and potential users of the modified hand woven fabrics to be produced by the researcher.
5. modify Ondo hand woven fabrics for current fashion needs.
6. produce different fashionable styles from the modified hand woven fabrics to be produced by the researcher for contemporary use.
1.5 Research Questions of the Study The research questions for this study are as follow:
1. Has Ondo traditional hand woven fabrics been sufficiently surveyed?
2. What are the traditional premium and uses attached to Ondo traditional hand woven fabrics?
3. In what ways will the existing weaving techniques, tools and materials of the Ondo people be critically assessed and compared with those of other Yoruba communities?
4. What is the perception of Ondo traditional weavers and those of the potential users of the modified hand woven fabrics produced by the researcher?
5. How can the modified hand woven fabrics be made to suit current fashion needs?
6. How will the modified hand woven fabrics be made into different fashionable styles for contemporary use?
1.6 Justification of the study A synthesis of reviewed literature revealed that, significant researches have been carried out on the Yoruba hand woven traditional fabrics in terms of the weavers, the weaving techniques, materials, equipment, products, uses, and the decline in the use of these hand woven fabrics. However, gaps still exist particularly on the hand woven fabrics of individual communities within the Yoruba ethnic groups. Ademuleya (2002) identifies Ondo as one of such communities which has been chosen as the study area for this research. Also, as gathered by the researcher, from the informants during the pilot study that, it appears much studies have not been done on the modification of the Ondo hand woven fabrics to suit contemporary fashion needs in the Nigerian society in order to make them still relevant for use in the 21st century, therefore, the research is considered worthwhile. The modification of the Ondo hand woven fabrics were done in the following ways: They were made lighter in weight and softer in hand, they were made of wider strips and longer length and of better luster. 1.7 Significance of the study
The significance of this research rests on the current fact that traditional weaving is no longer seen as mere attempt to duplicate traditional weaving craft of the societies which seem to be relegated to the background by the colonialists in the early days of Nigerian society. The research into the production of traditional hand woven fabrics of the Ondo people stands to add to historical records of literature not only on indigenous technology in clothing matters, but an effort towards appreciating the values of traditional hand woven fabrics enterprise in contemporary Nigerian society. Several studies have been conducted on the values of other ethnic communities in Nigeria like this study intends to.
Example of such are: Adetoro (1983), Kparevzua (1983), Babalola (1998), Maiwada (2001), Ademuleya (2002), Ada (2006) and Gwari (2008) to mention but a few. However, the significance of this study will be better appreciated as treated under the following sub-headings: educational, socio-cultural, economic, industrial and technological significance. Educationally, the study will be a veritable contribution to indigenous knowledge in the stabilization effort of cultural formulation and actualization of prerequisites of growth through the utilization of capabilities in human environment. It will improve the evident dearth of related literature on traditional hand woven fabrics because, little information is found in the area of designing tailored garments from traditional cloths. In addition, the study will enable art and textile historians and other ethnographical researchers obtain information on traditional textiles to enrich knowledge. This will create a record of tradition which is fast disappearing, as well as establish grounds for further research work by researchers and students of textiles. In addition, art historians and other social scientists will be enabled to gather information on Ondo hand woven fabrics that will enrich their knowledge of the ancient city of Ondo. Culturally, clothing serves as a major factor in human succession, identity and environment. It is in clothing that the Yoruba people express their social, cultural and political values as well as economic status. Socially, in Yoruba costume and culture, aso-oke is accorded very high social value to the envy of other ethnic groups in Nigeria, especially the female folks who are beginning to appreciate aso-oke as distinctively reserved for very special occasions or outings.
The Yoruba aso-ebi or extended family uniform, attests to these values as aso-oke has been and continues to be richly exhibited in most Yoruba ceremonies and presently assimilated in social, cultural and political engagements. In the past, the hand woven fabrics‟ production and usage were confined to the Yoruba Oba‟s courtiers. A commoner dared not make or wear any such costume. Much later things however changed. Economic, social, cultural and political powers now dictate who wears what, how and when. Economically, Traditional weaving has, steadily over the years, provided career and economic opportunities for generations of weavers‟ families and traders in the cottage industry. The study will encourage traditional cloth weavers to come together and form cooperative societies or guilds in order to get financial help and other assistance from the government. Examples of such are the establishment of training and skill acquisition centers for unemployed women and youth where they can acquire weaving skills that will make them self-reliant and so help to alleviate poverty in the society. The study is also hoped to stimulate aso-oke weavers‟ skills and fashion designers alike in designing, improved raw materials usage and the consumers‟ skills in shopping for clothing apparel. All these will definitely improve the economic lives of these stakeholders. It will also be of interest to Nigerian fashion designers by focusing their attention on the need and possibility of utilizing more of indigenous materials in designing fashionable garments. It is also expected to improve export prospects to earn foreign exchange. In addition, it will improve the quality of life of the aso-oke dealers through improved sales of their products.
Technologically, like a few other Nigerian craft trades, the hand loom cloth cottage industry is still being revitalized through the apprentice training system and continues to be so. The study also aims at stimulating effective discourse on the exploitation of weaving as a viable indigenous technology. The indigenous woven fabrics have continued to flourish, retaining its primordial essence value and, to some extent, organizational patterns underscoring the potential of the indigenous weaving technology as significant sign post of development. The study therefore, further confirms the importance and relevance of hand woven fabrics as one of the Yoruba peoples‟ surviving cottage industries. 1.8 Basic assumption of this study For the purpose of the study, the following assumptions are made:
1. The study assumes that its findings will contribute to the awareness that the weaving craft of the Ondo people as part of the Nigerian textile weaving culture.
2. That the study will provide avenue for setting up small scale enterprise for textile production in some other communities in Ondo State.
3. The improvements that will come on Ondo traditional hand woven fabrics will make them more appreciated and ensure continuity beyond local boundaries.
1.9 Scope of the study The study was limited to traditional hand woven fabrics produced and used in Ondo town, the weaving centres and weavers were selected based on random technique of selection towards collection of data for the study.
1.10 Physical Geography of Ondo Town Location: Ondo is situated on 6 50N – 7 10N of the Equator and the Longitude 40 25 E – 40 50 E of the Greenwich Meridian. It is bounded in the North by Akure, in the South by Okeigbo, in the West by Ile-Oluji and in the East Odigbo. Relief: Topographically, Ondo is generally undulating and relatively of low altitude with a minimum height of about 26 m (760 feet) above the sea level. There are hill here and there dotting the landscape. The land surface descends gradually from the Northern direction Southwards. Climate: The climate of Ondo is that of the humid tropical region. The climate is mainly controlled by the two major air masses vis: the tropical continental and the tropical maritime air masses. The tropical maritime blows between March and October and the tropical continental between November and February and former air mass brings with it the wet season while the later bring with it the dry season. The rainfall is highly erosive, in other words, it has potential marked by an alteration of wet and dry seasons. Ondo has a maximum rainfall of 1030 mm and a maximum of 1500 mm. The temperature fluctuates between high and low throughout the year with marked seasonal variations. The mean annual temperature is about 27 C, while annual rang does not exceed 30 C. The relative humidity is high throughout the year as a result of the maritime mass.
Fig i.i: map of Ondo west local government area . source Ondo west local government secretariat population department (2015)


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