Teaching Strategies and Teacher’s Effectiveness. Case of Study Some Selected Schools in Yaounde Municipality
This study investigates teaching strategies for enhancing the effectiveness/productivity of secondary school teachers in selected government secondary schools in Yaounde municipality. Three research questions and hypotheses guided the study. Questionnaire was used to collect data from 350 teachers selected from a population of 1400 teachers in government secondary schools in Yaounde municipality. The multi-stage sampling technique was used to select teachers for the study. Results showed that, teaching strategies influence the productivity/effectiveness of teachers in Government Secondary Schools. Also showed that teaching strategies enhances academic performance. Therefore, there is a possible correlation between these strategies, teachers’ productivity and school effectiveness. In addition, effective collaboration amongst teachers is necessary for teachers’ effectiveness. It is recommended that principals should put in strategies that will enhance effective communication, conflict management, motivation and supervision to improve on the productivity of teachers.
Secondary education occupies a central position in the education ladder. While it absorbs graduates from primary education, it prepares students for access into higher educational institutions. This gives secondary education its relevance. Low productivity in secondary education which is reflected in students’ output, such as skills acquired, repetition, dropout amongst others have adverse effects on the society and students. For example, school dropout at this level limits future opportunities for students and also represents a significant drain of the limited resources that countries have for the provision of secondary education. UNESCO (1984) cited in Mutua (2014), reports that school dropouts are most likely candidates for unemployment and dropouts from secondary school are often the most disadvantaged in the job markets. Being educated, their educational aspirations are high. They are often not satisfied with traditional occupations or engaging in production at subsistence level. Moreover, family members expect them to engage in salaried work to bring returns to the investment that the family made. While successful leavers have difficulties in obtaining employment, these dropouts have an even more difficult task in securing jobs. It could be said that dropout is not only an economic and pedagogical issue, but also a social and political one (Mutua, 2014).
The efficient and effective management of any organization lies on the ability of the top management or its manager to motivate the workforce. In the case of secondary education in Cameroon and other parts of the world, the principal is the head of the school and the manner in which the principal performs his/her roles and functions are paramount in improving the teaching and learning environment for teachers to be productive. Principals are the main administrators of staff and students who are at the center of educational productivity; teachers are at the center of the teaching-learning process while students are the major stakeholders in education since their performance informs the educational community on how the school is faring. Therefore, if teachers are not
productive, students will not be. Nwosu (2017), reports that teachers are arguably the most important group of professionals for our nation’s future. Without teachers, the education system will be crippled. The increased importance in teacher’s job performance has made it extremely important to identify the factors that influence teacher’s job performance. Based on the above assertion, this study sets out to examine strategies that principals can use to improve on the productivity of teachers as a result of their position.
Principals, as the head of educational institutions are charged with the responsibility of implementing educational policies, teachers on the other hand are the principal actors for the achievement of the goals and objectives of education. Fagbamiye (2004), stated that the principal is essentially an organizer and implementer of plans, policies and programmes meant for specific educational objectives. His administrative tasks include directing the teachers and students in an environment conducive to the maximum development of the learners. Teachers play a pivotal role in the achievement of educational goals and objectives given that their effectiveness determines students output. This is also backed by Section 37(1) of Law No. 98/004 of 14th April 1998 to lay down the guidelines of education in Cameroon which states that; “the teacher shall be the principal guarantor of quality education”. Though there are other factors that contribute to teachers’ productivity, principals as head of secondary schools has a paramount role to play in teachers’ job performance.
Even though till present, educational administrators in Cameroon do not undergo any formal training, appointment into administrative positions is based on teaching experience and output, after obtaining formal training in the higher teachers training college. This indicates that they lack the conceptual skills in educational administration and management which creates a gap in effective management and administration of secondary schools. There are some questions that could be raised to begin addressing the challenges associated with teachers’ productivity. Does the principal use of motivational strategies enhance teachers’ productivity? Do supervisory strategies used by the principal enhance teachers’ productivity? Do conflict management strategies of school affairs enhance teachers’ productivity? Do communication strategies of the principal enhance teachers’ productivity? The goal of this paper is thus to examine whether principal’s use of motivational, supervisory, conflict management and communication strategies enhance teachers’ productivity.
Teachers, as one of the major stakeholders in education, need to manage both students and knowledge, monitor students’ progress and provide guidance services under the guidance and supervisory role of the principal (Onuma, 2016). Therefore, the provision of management support practices by school principals is essential for teachers’ performance in building sufficiently motivated and effective teachers (ibid). Lemos, Muralidharan and Scur (2017) also established a relationship between management practices and school productivity while Price and Moolenaur (2015), reports that principals are greatly dependent on their teachers to reach school goals as teachers form the bridge from administration to classroom.
However, productivity is seen as one of the most vital factors affecting an educational institution’s competitiveness. According to Koss and Lewis, (1993) many educators who every day make decisions about improving teaching efficiency do not know how to answer the question: what do we really mean by productivity? So far, the term productivity may seem rather easy to understand, however, there are several implications which have caused much confusion. A common mistake is, for instance, to use productivity measures of production, which refers to the amount of a product or service produced.
Promoting productivity is the volume of goods and services produced per worker within some specific unit of the year. High productivity comes from having the right leaders creating the right environment that allows employees to increase in their skills, knowledge and feel empowered. To promote productivity of teacher, there must be visionary leaders who are trained to be more goal oriented, and focused on results and also hold a clear picture of where they are taking the community or organization.
By way of analogy, Amadi (1991) explained that example of productivity ratio is kilometers driven per gallon of petrol where petrol is the input and kilometers covered constituted the output. However, input measure of petrol is not used to determine the efficiency of the car’s performance. Together, related factors such as speed, traffic flow, the engine’s efficiency and the fuel’s efficiency are equally involved in the computation of the input index. The output measure of kilometer driven therefore becomes a gauge of the effectiveness of the result achieved. Smith (2017) divided up labor into two broad categories, productive and unproductive labor. Productive labor, according to Smith, was any work which fixed itself in a tangible object. Unproductive labor was any work where the value was consumed as soon as it was created. Smith contrasted the role of laborers in a manufacturing plant (productive work) with the tasks of a servant (unproductive work).
Statement of the Problem
The researcher was spurred to embark on this work following reported cases of poor performance of teachers in secondary schools the study area. There has been continuous decrease in productivity of teachers for years resulting in poor achievement of students in external examinations over the year. This study was carried out to investigate the Teaching strategies and teacher’s effectiveness. Case of study some selected schools in Yaounde municipality with a view to proffering solutions to the menace.
Purpose of the Study
This study aimed at investigating the Teaching strategies and teacher’s effectiveness. Case of study some selected schools in Yaounde municipality. Specifically the study sought to;
- examine the impact of teaching strategies on teacher’s effectiveness in secondary schools in Yaounde municipality.
- examine the impact of teaching strategies on teacher’s productivity.
- examine the impact of teaching strategies on students academic performance in the post primary schools in Yaounde municipality Area.
Significance of the Study
Findings from of this study will benefit parents, students, ministry of education. The higher recruitment of experienced and professional teachers into the teaching profession will create more chances of high productivity in the government and the classroom.
Therefore, if ministry of education applies the recommended approach derived from the result of the study they will be more productive. The management will be directed on what should be done by the teachers to promote productivity in the system. Teachers will impact more knowledge in their students. The students will benefit by acquiring knowledge and performing better in their examinations. Parents will be happy seeing their words performing excellently well and their money not being wasted. The society will have highly intelligent individuals who will contribute to the growth of the nation.
To guide the study the following research questions were used.
- what is the impact of teaching strategies on teacher’s effectiveness in secondary schools in Yaounde municipality ?
- what is the impact of teaching strategies on teacher’s productivity ?
- what is the impact of teaching strategies on students academic performance in the post primary schools in Yaounde municipality Area.
Hypothesis of the study
Ho1; teaching strategies has no significant impact on teacher’s effectiveness in secondary schools in Yaounde municipality
Ho2: teaching strategies has no significant impact on teacher’s productivity
Ho3: teaching strategies has no significant impact on students academic performance of students in the post primary schools in Yaounde municipality Area
Scope of the Study
The focus of the study will be on strategies for promoting productivity of teacher in Yaounde municipality Area.[email protected][email protected]