Terrorism And Foreign Relation (A Case Study Of Buhari Administration)
The upsurge of terrorism poses threats and insecurities to human existence. Terrorism is capable of paralyzing the foundations of modern governments. Terrorism poses alarming kind of violence and threat in the contemporary International Relations (IR). Perhaps if not properly handle is capable of eroding the interdependence nature of nation-states relations in the world. The study sets out to identify and explain the factors and implications of terrorism in the contemporary IR. It argues that contemporary IR discourse predominantly subscribes to a prevailing global order that is overwhelmed by the complexities of post- international politics, interdependence and structural relations through globalization. The study also emphasizes that, the upsurge of terrorism and media are linked together. The study posit that, a terrorist act is not senseless, but a logical effective given certain political and psychological condition. The study argued that, terrorism is goal-oriented, though could be corrected and also devastating and could be controlled. The study concludes that, since all the military strategies used by United States government failed to curb the upsurges of terrorism, negotiation, reconciliation, comprehensive economic and social strategy and diplomacy are the ways out of the scourge.
1.1 Background to the study
The concept “terrorism” and the activities of the terrorists today have taken a frontal stage in world politics. Be it as it may, the effect on domestic and international politics cannot be overemphasized evident in the foreign behaviours of nation states in pursuit of their national interests which of course, security and territorial integrity are among the core.
Nigeria’s perception of the strategic necessity of mutual and friendly relations with her immediate neighbours has played a major role in the formulation of good neighborliness policy. The principle of respect for the sovereign equality of all nations is clearly exhibited in Nigeria’s external relations and prominent in her external relations with her immediate neighbours. More conspicuous is the mutual acceptance of OAU (AU) declaration in July 1964 of respect for the existing border on the achievement of independence in Article 3 paragraph 3 of the OAU Charter. This in itself, has not prevented in totality, the occasional outburst of boundary disputes, threats to security as well as other provocative activities.
Violence across the borders might and might not be a calculated action of the state actors but could be actions of other actors in the international arena which include individuals and groups. This could be evident in the words of Bamigbose (2006:127), events such as domestic policies and actions of sovereign governments, routine exercise of power on matters which border on day-to-day governance, can snowball into foreign policy controversies that are likely to attract global attention. The operation of Boko Haram has moved from the sphere of domestic or internal politics to international domain. Such issues (like the case of Boko Haram) may provoke favourable or negative reactions from other nations that are touched by policies emanating there from and this can invariably lead to the enhancement or deterioration of bilateral or multilateral relations.
Since the end of the cold war the IR as well as international security environment has become more complex. A number of issues have been added to traditional concerns in the field such as international terrorism, cross-border security threats, failed states, internal conflicts, and consequences for global inequalities, weapon proliferation and the emergency of new interventionist foreign policies. The catastrophic and aftermath of September 11, 2001 have been dramatic that motivated contemporary IR scholars and practitioners to conclude that, the world has entered an “age of terrorism”. Since then, the consciousness of terrorism has taken a quantum leap. Terrorism now looms as a new and menacing situation without end, calling for new approaches on many fronts including a new kind of preparedness and a new kind of struggle against it (Heywood, 2011; Mitchel and Smelser, 2002). The magnitude of the disaster of 9/11 brought to bear a general recognition that required urgent attention. Terrorism has acquired global reach, and it destructive potential has greatly increased (Heywood, 2011; Ovasogie, 2013; Tella and Akintola, 2013). The activity of contemporary terrorists as non- State actors is a challenge to the sovereign States. The upsurge of terrorism (after 9/11) and perception of global insecurity have resulted from the changing in the power structure and ideological configuration of the IR caused by the collapse of the entire deterrence regime as previously defined, that is norms, rules and procedures of international system of governance (i.e. traditional approaches to IR). Today, it is impossible to read news headlines without seen terrorism as public phenomenon. In other words, it is inconceivable to think of a public event- the premier leagues, world cup games, an economic summit, any official gathering without worrying about security and threat of terrorist activities globally. Therefore this study aim to discuss the following; conceptual analysis of terrorism, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, theoretical framework of terrorism, methodology, causes of terrorism, implications of terrorism, counterterrorism strategies and the ways forward.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Considering the topical nature of terrorism since the events of 9/11, the deluge of divergent interpretation, commentaries and projection is hardly surprising. The increase upsurges of terrorism in contemporary inter- states relations have seriously affected lives in global level. Perhaps if not properly handle might destroy the interdependence and interconnected nature of IR. Terrorist activities since 9/11 attack have call serious attention to tackle the menace. The implications of terrorists act ranges from failed state, economic development, territorial and sovereignty fragility. This explains why these are global phenomenon, and call for need to curb the menace collectively in the international level. However, IR as a field of study tries to explain and understand contemporary terrorism that apparently defies logic, rationality and ethics as well as most attempt to resolve certain or deter it (Mitchel and Smelser, 2002 emphasis added).
1.3 Objectives of the study
The broad objective of this study is to examine the implications of terrorism on foreign relation A case study of Buhari administration. Specifically, the study aims to
- To examine the factors that encourages terrorism globally.
- To analyze the implications of terrorism in the contemporary IR.
1.4 Research Question
- what are the the factors that encourages terrorism globally ?
- what are the the implications of terrorism in the contemporary IR ?
1.5 Significance of the Study
There are numerous reasons why this research is useful, the research work would be of great importance to students and lectures in practice of how to carry out further research in the same area. It will help the government to solve some likely problems that might encounter in terms of development in Nigeria. Also, the research will act as a guide to the government in their quest to quell the problems associated with security, ethnic crisis and political or religious crisis in Nigeria.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study covers the effects of Boko Haram Insurgency in Boron state to the foreign relation in the state, Also the study examines the relationship between the two variables Boko-haram Insurgency and foreign relation.
1.7 Limitation of Study
During the course of performing/researching this project work, the researcher encountered a lot of challenges as well as opposition which ranges from financial constraints, time factor. This factors in their own ways, slowed down the speedy progress of this work that resulted to the researcher not being able to finish the research work on time as is required
Also, within the area of study the researcher was faced with some other forms of constrains that contributed to the limitation of this researcher work, like accessibility to data, information and facts concerning the present study due to some reasons or the other, some not willing to give out information that it is to be within the workers.
The methodology adopted in this study Is a blend of historical, descriptive and analytical research methods. The historical research will allow us to describe the antecedent and precedent from the past and present and learn from them which can be purely factual and descriptive. This means invariably the sources of the data will be mainly library research and content analysis. This library will involve the use of relevant textbook on leadership and national integration in Nigeria and other relevant books on the study..
Conceptualizing Insurgency: Contemporary Advanced Phase of Terrorism