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The Activities of World Health Organization in Nigeria: A Case Study of Abuja

Chapter One


This study employed a quantitative survey research design to assess the impact of World Health Organization (WHO) interventions in Abuja, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was developed to collect data from a sample of 120 respondents, consisting of professionals and stakeholders in the health sector. Utilizing SPSS27, the collected data underwent rigorous presentation and analysis, including descriptive statistics and inferential tests. Hypotheses were tested using a one-sample t-test, examining the effectiveness of WHO interventions in addressing healthcare challenges and their impact on healthcare infrastructure and outcomes. The findings revealed significant positive perceptions regarding the WHO’s initiatives in Abuja. Respondents generally agreed that the interventions, particularly vaccination programs and projects aimed at improving maternal and child health services, were effective. Moreover, collaborations with local healthcare providers and awareness campaigns addressing public health issues garnered substantial support. The study’s conclusions aligned with these positive perceptions, emphasizing the observable improvements in healthcare accessibility, infrastructure, and health outcomes attributed to the WHO’s interventions. Based on the outcomes, recommendations were formulated to further strengthen the impact of global health interventions in Abuja. These recommendations include enhancing collaborative efforts between international organizations and local healthcare providers, sustaining awareness campaigns, and focusing on evidence-based strategies to address prevalent health challenges. The study’s findings and recommendations contribute significantly to understanding the effectiveness of global health initiatives in resource-constrained settings, providing valuable insights for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers working toward improving healthcare delivery and outcomes.




Background to the Study

The World Health Organization (WHO) stands as a global beacon dedicated to enhancing health initiatives worldwide. Nigeria, a country grappling with diverse health challenges, has witnessed the pivotal role of the WHO, especially in its capital city, Abuja. The interventions and activities of the WHO in this region have undeniably reshaped the healthcare landscape, prompting a need for a comprehensive study to fathom its efficacy and influence.

Understanding the performance of healthcare access and quality is crucial for evaluating the impact of global health organizations like the WHO. Recent analyses conducted by various researchers offer valuable insights into this area, examining the effectiveness of health systems and providing a framework for assessing progress. These studies serve as vital benchmarks for evaluating the impact of WHO interventions in Abuja and Nigeria as a whole.

In the context of Nigeria’s aspirations toward achieving universal health coverage (UHC), studies assessing the country’s trajectory in this regard become highly relevant. Research exploring the gaps and challenges in Nigeria’s healthcare system amidst epidemiological and financing transitions provides critical perspectives. This analysis can inform the WHO’s actions, directing its efforts toward addressing specific deficiencies and furthering progress towards UHC in Abuja.

Moreover, examining trends in sexual and reproductive health on a global scale, though not directly focused on Nigeria, offers valuable insights applicable to the country’s context. Understanding the demand for modern contraceptive methods and sexual activity trends can guide the WHO in tailoring interventions that align with the specific needs of the Nigerian population, including those in Abuja.

Reports such as The Lancet Nigeria Commission emphasize the imperative of investing in health for the nation’s future. These comprehensive studies not only underscore the importance of healthcare but also outline strategic directions for policy-making and investment. Aligning with the recommendations from such commissions could significantly shape health policies in Abuja and contribute to Nigeria’s overall healthcare strategies.

National health surveys conducted by the National Population Commission offer rich data that aid in assessing the impact of health interventions over time. These surveys, spanning various years, provide a comprehensive understanding of demographic and health trends. Leveraging this data, the WHO can assess the effectiveness of its programs, identify areas requiring attention, and tailor interventions to address specific health challenges in Abuja.

The WHO’s involvement in implementing national strategic plans, such as those for Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control, is critical for controlling infectious diseases in Abuja. Monitoring reports released by the WHO provide valuable insights into progress and areas needing additional attention. Leveraging research methodologies and collaborations with local institutions can further refine the effectiveness of interventions in Abuja.

Furthermore, understanding the local context through localized studies on diseases like tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS in southeastern Nigeria provides essential foundations for targeted interventions. These studies offer insights that can help the WHO develop contextually relevant strategies specifically tailored to Abuja’s health challenges.

Statement of Problem

Despite the commendable efforts of the World Health Organization (WHO) in addressing health challenges in Nigeria, particularly in Abuja, there exists a discernible gap in the understanding of the comprehensive impact and effectiveness of WHO interventions. While existing studies have touched upon specific aspects of healthcare, a holistic evaluation of the WHO’s activities in Abuja remains largely unexplored.

One notable research gap lies in the limited examination of the WHO’s role in shaping and influencing health policies at both national and regional levels. While various studies have highlighted the organization’s involvement in specific health programs, there is a dearth of comprehensive analyses that assess the overall impact of WHO interventions on the healthcare landscape of Abuja. Understanding the synergies between the WHO and national health policies is crucial for enhancing the sustainability and effectiveness of health initiatives.

Furthermore, existing research often focuses on specific diseases or health indicators, leaving a gap in the evaluation of the WHO’s contributions to the broader healthcare system in Abuja. A comprehensive understanding of how the WHO’s activities intersect with the diverse health challenges in the region is essential for crafting targeted and contextually relevant interventions. This research gap hinders the development of a nuanced and holistic perspective on the WHO’s role in promoting overall health and well-being in Abuja.

Additionally, there is a need for research that delves into the socio-economic and cultural determinants influencing the implementation and reception of WHO interventions in Abuja. This gap limits the depth of understanding regarding the contextual factors that may either facilitate or hinder the successful implementation of health programs. A nuanced exploration of these determinants is imperative for tailoring interventions that resonate with the local population, ensuring greater acceptability and effectiveness.

Objectives of the Study

The study aimed to achieve the following specific objectives:

  1. To assess the nature and scope of the WHO’s activities in Abuja, Nigeria.
  2. To evaluate the effectiveness of WHO interventions in addressing healthcare challenges in Abuja.
  3. To analyze the impact of the WHO’s activities on healthcare infrastructure and outcomes in Abuja.

Research Questions

The study addressed the following research questions:

  1. What specific health initiatives has the WHO implemented in Abuja, Nigeria?
  2. How effective have these interventions been in addressing healthcare challenges in Abuja?
  3. What measurable impact have the WHO’s activities had on healthcare infrastructure and outcomes in Abuja?

 Research Hypotheses

The study hypothesized that:

Null Hypotheses(H0):

  1. The WHO’s interventions in Abuja have not positively contributed to addressing healthcare challenges.
  2. There is no correlation between the WHO’s activities and improvements in healthcare infrastructure and outcomes in Abuja.

Alternative Hypotheses(H1):

  1. The WHO’s interventions in Abuja have positively contributed to addressing healthcare challenges.
  2. There is a correlation between the WHO’s activities and improvements in healthcare infrastructure and outcomes in Abuja.

 Significance of the Study

This research bears considerable importance in unveiling the effectiveness of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) initiatives in Abuja, Nigeria. The revelations stemming from this study are poised to offer valuable insights to policymakers, healthcare professionals, and international organizations, elucidating the strengths and weaknesses inherent in current interventions. By conducting a thorough assessment of the WHO’s activities in Abuja, this study acts as a beacon, guiding stakeholders toward a more informed and strategic approach to addressing prevailing health challenges.

The implications of this research extend beyond a mere evaluation of ongoing efforts; rather, it serves as a foundation upon which future strategies can be built. By illuminating the successes and shortcomings of existing interventions, the study equips decision-makers with the knowledge necessary for refining and optimizing healthcare policies and practices in Abuja. This, in turn, facilitates a more targeted and effective allocation of resources, fostering a healthcare system that is both responsive and resilient.

Moreover, the study lays the groundwork for fostering collaborations that transcend existing boundaries. The insights gleaned from the research provide a common ground for dialogue and partnership among stakeholders. Policymakers can leverage the findings to engage in informed discussions with international organizations, healthcare practitioners, and local communities. This collaborative approach is pivotal for orchestrating concerted efforts that are attuned to the unique needs of Abuja, fostering a synergistic alliance aimed at advancing healthcare provisions in the region.

Scope of the Study

This study focused exclusively on the activities of the WHO within Abuja, Nigeria. It encompassed a comprehensive review and analysis of the organization’s initiatives, interventions, and their impact on healthcare infrastructure and outcomes in the region.

Operational Definition of Terms

World Health Organization (WHO): Refers to the specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health.

Activities: Specific programs, projects, or interventions carried out by the WHO in Abuja.

Abuja: The capital city of Nigeria and the primary geographical focus of this study.

Effectiveness: The extent to which the WHO’s interventions achieve their intended goals and objectives in improving healthcare in Abuja.

Healthcare Challenges: Various obstacles or issues faced in providing adequate healthcare services in Abuja.

Infrastructure: The physical and organizational structures related to healthcare facilities and services in Abuja.

Outcomes: Measurable results or changes observed in healthcare indicators due to the WHO’s activities in Abuja.

Impact: The overall effect or influence of the WHO’s interventions on healthcare systems and outcomes in Abuja.



  • World Health Organization (WHO), “Primary Health Care on the Road to Universal Health Coverage 2019 MONITORING REPORT,” WHO Geneva (2019).
  • Levac, H. Colquhoun, K. K. O’Brien, “Scoping studies: advancing the methodology,” Implementation Sci. 5 (2010): 69. doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-5-69.
  • Moher, A. Liberati, J. Tetzlaff, D. G. Altman, “Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement,” BMJ 339 (2009): b2535. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b2535.
  • N. Ukwaja, I. Alobu, N. A. Ifebunandu, C. Osakwe, C. Igwenyi, “Trend in case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases notified in Ebonyi, Southeastern Nigeria during 1999-2009,” Pan Afr Med J. 16(1) (2022).
  • O. Ugwu, M. C. Agbo, I. M. Ezeonu, “Prevalence of tuberculosis, drug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV/TB co-infection in Enugu, Nigeria,” Afr J Infect Dis. 15(2) (2021): 24–30.


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