The Anti-Corruption Campaign Under President Muhammadu Buhari’s Regime
- This study will be presented in five chapters as follows: Chapter one is the introduction of the study which provides a summary of the project, stating how and what will be done in the study: the background to the study, statement of the problem, research questions, objectives of the study, scope of the study, significance of the study, and the research methodology.
- Chapter two will discuss literature review and the theoretical framework as appropriate to the attainment of the goals of this study.
- Chapter three will trace the history of the anti-corruption war in Nigeria.
- Chapter four will examine anticorruption war in Nigeria
- Chapter five will be the summary, conclusion and recommendations on issues that have been treated in the course of the study.
1.2 Background to the Study
Corruption is one of the most prevalent issues that confront modern-day states, especially in developing countries. Addressing the menace of corruption has turned out to be an issue in the global system that almost every state has devised proactive measures in order to eradicate the deadly virus. Appreciable results have been documented in some countries while others have not been successful from inception. Combating corruption no doubt needs the crucial efforts of government agencies such as the judiciary, executive, law enforcement agencies, legislature, public officials, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), media, and the general public.
Corruption as used in this paper is not far from the way it has been used by many scholars. However, there is no generally accepted definition of ; thus, there is a controversy as regard its meaning. Nevertheless, corruption in its fundamental form is defined as the use of public office for private gain (Pradhan and Campos, 2007). It can also be seen as the abuse of public roles or resources for private benefit (Johnston, 1998). Corruption in Nigeria for instance is an offence punishable under the money laundering act of 1999., similarly, it is punishable under the advance fee fraud and other fraud related offenses Act of 1995, banks and other financial institution Act 1991, failed banks (recovery of debts) and financial malpractices in banks Act 1994, miscellaneous offences Acts 1995, Independent Corrupt Practices and other related offences Commission (ICPC) and Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) Acts among others.
Against this backdrop the issue of whistle blowing as a panacea to corrupt practices shall be discussed in relation to its application in other African and developing countries. The essence is to jettison the speculation that whistle blowing in Nigeria is but a political tool coined by the Buhari administration to deal with the opposition. In this wise, one point of departure is to take the institutional theory as a framework to underscore the study.
It is worthy to mention that in Nigeria, successive governments since independence in 1960 have put in place various measures, mechanisms, strategies or initiatives to combat or minimize corruption in the country. These measures and strategies include but not limited to the establishment of special anti-graft agencies, commissions of inquiry into allegations of corruption, trial of suspected corrupt officials, and commissions as well as anti-corruption units of the Nigeria Police Force. Example of such agencies include the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), the Ethical Revolution/Reorientation Campaign, the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB), the War Against Indiscipline (WAI), the National Committee on Corruption and other Economic Crimes (NCCEC), the Audit Alarm System (AAS), War Against Indiscipline and Corruption (WAI-C), the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), the Budget Monitoring and Price Intelligence Unit (BMPIU), Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), and the Nigerian Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI), among others.
In order to enhance the efforts of the existing anti-graft agencies in Nigeria such as EFCC, ICPC, and others, the administration of President Muhammadu Buhari on December 21, 2016 adopted the whistleblowing policy with the promise of compensating whistleblowers who uncover fraud and other related crimes in the public or private sectors (Adetayo, 2016; Nwabughiogu, 2016). The decision which was made known to Nigerians by the Minister of Finance, Mrs Kemi Adeosun, was received with mixed feelings. While majority saw it as a good step in the right direction, others believed that the adoption of the policy is nothing more but waste of time and precious resources.
The purpose of this study is to examine the adoption of whistle-blowing policy as anti-corruption strategy in Nigeria focusing on its challenges and prospects.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
There are studies on whistle blowing in relationship with the freedom of information; the physical and psychological impact of whistle-blowing policy on whistle blowers; the factors that led to the establishment of whistle-blowing system and the perception of employees toward whistle-blowing system in the public sectors respectively.
Ozekhome (2014) confirmed that throughout the world, the media have brought to light several high profile cases of whistle-blowing. For instance, in the United States of America (USA), three whistle blowers were awarded in the year 2002. They are; Time Magazines Person of the Yearviz Cynthia Cooper (Worldcom), Sherron Watkins (Enron Corporation) and Coleen Rowley (Federal Bureau of Investigation). Similarly, Oyebade (2016) contends that it is most obvious that the culture of whistle-blowing has been accepted and recognized throughout the world as one of the instruments of promoting good governance and combating corruption.
However, according to Taiwo (2015), whistle blowers are vulnerable to both organizational retaliation and punishment at the hands of other organizational members who may react and most likely show reprisal against them. In the same vien, De Maria (2005) points out, corruption in Africa has been so regular and institutionalized that whistleblowing policies are majorly addressing non-systematic corruption thereby rendering them ineffective. Studies have indicated that many people who witness the wrongdoings in the private and public sectors refused to report them because of the fear of retaliation (Martin, 2010; Hoffman & McNulty, 2010: Hoffman & Schwartz, 2014). Based on the aforementioned, the study seeks to advance and contribute to literatures on anti-corruption war in Nigeria by examining the adoption of whistleblowing policy as anti-corruption strategy in Nigeria focusing on its challenges and prospects. Also, this study tends to see how effective anti-corruption war is in other African countries.
1.4 Research Questions
This study attempts to provide answers to the following research questions
- What is the history of anti-corruption war in Nigeria?
- How effective is whistle-blowing policy in the anti-corruption war in Nigeria?
- What are the challenges and prospects of whistle blowing policy in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Objectives
The main objective of this study is to examine the adoption of whistleblowing policy as anti-corruption strategy in Nigeria by focusing on its challenges and prospects. The specific objectives include the following:
- To trace the history of anti-corruption war in Nigeria.
- To examine the effectiveness of the whistle-blowing policy in the anti-corruption war in Nigeria.
- To examine the challenges and prospects of whistle blowing policy in Nigeria.
1.6.1 Sources of Data
In the conduct of this research, secondary data will be used. Information will also be derived from printed materials like official/government publications, journals, seminar and conference papers, newspapers, text books, commission reports, etc. Also, non-printed electronic materials from the internet, unpublished materials and other relevant sources will help in the course of this study.
1.6.2 Methods of Data Collection
In the conduct of this research, Qualitative method of collecting data will be adopted. Thus, secondary data was collected through secondary sources were used. Data that will be collected from a number of sources can broadly be classified into two categories: Published sources and unpublished sources. It will also include the research works carried out by scholars, teachers and .
1.6.3 Data Analysis Methods
In the analysis of this work, the descriptive and qualitative data interpretation methods will be adopted. The data collected will be subjected to in-depth, critical and logical reasoning in order to enable the research to effectively archive the objective of the study. Therefore, this research will be historical, exploratory, descriptive, and qualitative in nature through the use of secondary data sources for analysis.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study or research cannot be over emphasized because of the immense contribution it is supposed to offer in the area of development of knowledge on corruption in Nigeria. Over the years, scholars and experts have dedicated much attention to the study of corruption and. This study therefore is centered on examining the adoption of whistleblowing policy as anti-corruption strategy in Nigeria by focusing on its challenges and prospects. EFCC is studied as one the agents that champion the war against corruption in Nigeria economy. Also, this work will serve as a very relevant and important material for further research in the war against corruption in Nigeria. Furthermore, it will also increase the literatures that exist on corruption among nations in the world.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study examines the adoption of whistleblowing policy as anti-corruption strategy in Nigeria focusing on its challenges and prospects from 2015 to 2019. The scope is justified on the basis of the policy being a major instrument in the war against corruption under the Buhari Administration.