1.1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The study looks at two important professions, which are teaching and banking. The study is aimed at finding out whether the workers in the banks and schools are satisfied with their jobs. According to Akande (1988) “ An engineer dies with his mistakes, a medical doctor buries his mistakes but the whole society perishes with the mistakes of teachers”. In recent years, the results of school certificate examination released by West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and National Examinations Council (NECO) have been very poor. The society attributed the cause of the general trend to the level of commitment on the part of the teachers who are responsible for teaching the students.
The banking industry has a lot of problems to contend with, which has led to retrenchment of many workers or even the closure of some banks. Hence, the researcher’s decision to carry out the study on the level of commitment of teachers and bank workers in Mainland Local government in Lagos State to establish the relationship between job satisfaction, commitment and productivity. On the other hand, the study will look into state of the bank workers and to see the effect of job satisfaction of employees’ commitment and productivity. Banking area is another powerful aspect of survival of every nation. The folding up of some banks in the recent past needed particular attention. The study will show the reflection of the popular belief that a happy worker is a productive worker and that management can increase productivity of the workers.
In carrying out research on teaching and banking professions, the importance of job satisfaction cannot be over-emphasised. The value judgement, mental and physical commitment and productivity explain why the larger society holds organisation accountable for participants’ satisfaction. In as much as individual spends a sizeable portion of his working life in his place of work, it should be pleasant, agreeable and fulfilling. On mental health, Nwaku (1986) posited that discontentment about specific parts of our lives tend to have a spill over effect and colour our outlook people who feel bad about many other things including family life, leisure activities and even life itself can hardly commit themselves to the job which results in low productivity. In addition, job satisfaction is undoubtedly related to physical health. Palmore (1969) posited that people who like their work are likely to live longer. When one is not satisfied with ones job, there is tendency to be frustrated which could lead to low productivity and possibly strike.
In this research, I shall look into motivational strategies used by teaching and banking sectors, and then compare the levels of their productivity. The teachers are life moulders, the future of the society is in their hands and as a result of this, teachers have put in their best in doing this without any disturbance or distraction. The tone of people concerning teaching profession is nothing to write home about; the government is not helping the situation because their salaries are not paid on time. There is an adage that says a hungry man is an angry man, so the needs of teachers need to be met in order to teach effectively. One of the most difficult situations in which to introduce changes to people’s job is where they already have a basic feeling of insecurity. So, in many ways, the economic climate in Nigeria is hardly conducive to a general movement, which centres on altering jobs and work organizations as a way of improving the quality of working life. The increasingly rapid emergency of new technology of all kinds of is creating its own impetus for change and forcing many employers to re-appraise their organisational structure, as well as their product ranges and their methods of manufacturing, neither are the service industries immune, since the rapid progress of all forms of information technology promises to bring about radical changes in the office, in retailing, and even in the personal services areas. At the same time people’s basic feelings about work continue to change, as part of a wider shift in social attitudes. School Leavers, in particular, have vastly different job expectations from those of their parents.
Present pressure might be pushing many into “being realistic” and taking any job they can get hold of; but the basic expectations have been raised by radial changes in the educational system, and there are substantial social and productive dangers if there is an inherent mismatch between their experiences at school and their first experience at work. At the school, they have been encouraged to seek variety, to make choice and to express them. All too often the working situation forces them to accept boredom, to restrict their discretionary actions, and to suppress their opinions, feelings and creative instincts. The individuality that has been carefully nurtured in the better educational establishment is then too often, exposed to mundane requirements of work place routine. In these cases, it is hardly surprising that some employers complain of young people’s increased alienation against the traditional work ethics. On the other hand, banking has a lot of problems to contend with. The banking industry falls neatly into certain distinctive time periods. There is era of monopoly of foreign banks, which cover 1930 to 1984 and can aptly be described as period during which the foundations of modern banks in Nigeria were laid. The period was characterized by the total domineering of banking activities by the foreign banks.
In 1994, was commencement of commercial banking activities when the Bank of British West Africa (BBWA) was established which is now called First Bank of Nigeria. Plc. For the next two and a half decades the bank pioneered the development of banking in Nigeria until Barclays Banks joined it in 1971, which is now Union Bank of Nigeria. Another era was the era of indigenous attempt into modern banking that reflects the fact that there were some forms of indigenous banking before local attempts to compete with the foreign banks.
Every economy, after attaining a certain size, no matter how subsistent it is, still requires some form of banking activities. This, form of banking activity describe as “ESUSU” in certain area was already well entrenched in our system. There was also the era of Federal Government, which was between 1929 and 1959 in which twenty-six (26) banks were established. The Federal Government acquired little shares in all the foreign banks to ensure the minimum of 60% Nigerians to participate. By that idea, the Federal Government became the predominant shareholder in the industry and this situation did not change until recently. Another era is that of state Government ownership by which the creation of additional state in 1976 increased the numbers of banks owned by state Government. This, increased the number of banks due to creation of additional states in 1991 and all former 19 states of the federation already had their own banks separate from the ones owned jointly with other states. As the states are increasing likewise the banks are increasing. The last era is that of private ownership of banks, which gives individual initiative towards the establishment of banks in the country, since the Federal Government took over controlling shares in all existing foreign banks in 1977. Despite, the establishment of all forms of banks, there are lots of problems encountered by the bank workers which is making the productivity very low compared with what it is supposed to be.
In conclusion, this work will show the reflection of the popular belief that “a happy worker is a productive worker and that management can increase productivity by satisfying the needs of the employees in the two Sectors”. A study carried out by Vroom (1964) using diverse occupational groups actually showed that there is a positive relationship even though the relationship was found to be low and only intrinsic job factors were found to affect job productivity
1.2.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Due to increase in the problems of banks and educationally poor performance of the students, the researcher shall carry out research on the effect of job satisfaction on employees’ commitment and to what extent it can affect the productivity of the workers. The study is to find out what the workers value most, which the employer has to meet in order to commit employees to work and to attain the set of goal with particular reference to teaching and banking professions. It is very glaring that human beings from the backbone of every organisation and also determine the success or failure of such organisation. This is the reason why individuals need to be taken into consideration in any sectors of life.
For an organisation to get an individual highly committed for a high level of productivity, certain levels of job satisfaction must be met. This research will consider social personality types of individuals concerning their choice of careers.
1.3.AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The study aims at finding out relationship between job satisfaction, employees, commitment and productivity in teaching and banking professions. The study will examine what motivation strategies that could be employed to influence the performance of workers for increase in productivity.
This study is of importance to the teaching and banking professions because the outcome of its findings can be used to improve the status of teachers and bank workers. Also in the days of economic depression and mad rush for wealth, one would like to know the factors that are inherent in trained teachers and bank workers, which will enhance job satisfaction and productivity. The study is set out to find out relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ commitment towards high productivity between the two sectors. As a matter of fact, the review of relevant literature has shown that the personnel and work experimental characteristics of the personnel determine job satisfaction of workers. To the individual, acknowledgement of forces that promote or hinder workers job satisfaction might bring happiness as well as improved efficiency of work.
The study finds answers to these questions:-
1. What is the relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ commitment before and after treatment?
2. Is there any relationship between the job satisfaction of experimental and control subjects?
3. Is there any relationship between job motivational strategies and level of productivity among experimental subjects?
4. Is there any relationship between the level of productivity among male and female subjects after treatment?
The following hypotheses are to be tested: –
1. There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and employees commitment.
2. There is no significant difference between motivational strategies and level of productivity among experimental subjects.
3. There is no significant difference between level of productivity among male and female subjects after treatment.
1.6.SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY (STUDY AREA)
The study shall take into consideration the teaching and banking professional. The study shall focus on secondary school teachers and bank workers. Due to lack of adequate time and financial constraints the study shall be limited to four schools and four banks in Mainland Local government area in Lagos.
1.7. DEFINITION OF TERMS:
This is the sum total of tasks performed by an employee and, in a wider context social environment in which he or she carries them out Essen (2002) According to chrude (1976) defined Job as a continuous period of paid employment with an employer or in self-employment.
This is a feeling of contentment felt when one has or achieves what one needs or desires.
This is a person who works for somebody or a company in return for wages.
Ones ability to carry out a job given.
It is defined as the extent to which an employee is pleased or satisfied with the content and environment of his or her work or is displeasured or frustrated by inadequate working conditions and tedious job content Essien (2002). According to Omoegun (2001) he defines Job satisfaction as a factor in employment which determines much the employer and employee achieved.
When one signs an undertaken to handle or pledge to do something. In this study work, commitment shall be defined as organisational identification (internalisation goals), as this criteria is regarded as the best most suitable of the motivational effectiveness.
This is the number of units of work accomplished during a given time interval. It is a correspondence between the numbers of units produced, the amount of work behaviour demonstrated by the individual and the amount in work activity as rated by his or her boss.
Level of employment in a community ranging from mass unemployment, when slump conditions are experienced, to full employment, when dangers of inflation are present particularly in a less’ fair economy.
Akande W.O. (1988), Correlate of Teachers Motivation for Job performance. Educational Perspective vol 5.
Chruden, H.J & Sherman, A.W. (1976) Personnel Management South Western Publishing Co.London.
Essien E.F. (2002), Definition of Terms: “The Concise Dictionary of Management Abraham Blessing Publishing Ventures, Ago-Iwoye,Ogun State.
Nwaku S.A. (1986), Principle Leadership behaviour and job satisfaction among Teachers. Lagos journal of Educational Administration and Planning.
Omoregun, M. (2001) The Adolescent and You, Bab Sheriff and Co. Ltd,Lagos.
Palmore I.O. (1969), Financial Motivation in Banking Industry. Journal of Contemporary issues vol 1.
Vroom V.A. (1964), Management and Motivation. Middlesex Penguin Books Ltd., England.