The Effect of Television Advertisement on Consumer’s Brand Choice a Study of Airtel Customers in Asaba Metropolis
Review of related literature
Watching how fast the eyes of consumers change from a brand to another, their needs from a product to another, communication through advertising appears like an easy, simple and large way to keep the market in touch with company offers. For this purpose, for (Michael J. Phillips, 1997) advertising create a direct link between consumer needs and corporate offers. Most of the time, no one is aware about latest version or latest item on the market, even how to use a good or where to find it. All information related to such cases is in basic consumer’s requirements and usually belong to marketing plan. We can see here the value and impact of advertising are immeasurable, and the long term can produce positive results as negative. Now everything will depends on how the market will accept, appreciate and behave with what is offered to him. The success of business policy in such a way is the result of good marketing and especially good communication that took into account all aspects of the relationship between the company and the market. The results of an advertising cannot be seen once a product is on the market for all goods just because, for some of them, the target market need a little bit more time to become familiar with this or these new ones, check by himself and get is own idea about that. (Manendra Mohan, 1989) advertising is easily used to communicate about a new product. However, he mentions that because of that commercial communication, expenses made about R&D of that new product can be covered through its sales. Moreover he points out the fact that with advertising we can’t be sure with the success of all new products. Finally, no matter researches, analysis, study made about advertising, the final decision remains to consumer. (Manendra Mohan, 1989) the explicit function of advertising is to make the probable market aware of the reality or presence of the product in the market place. Making an advertising message believable is not easy; though often it is sufficient to make the consumer curious enough to try the product. Such curiosity is often referred to as interested disbelief. (Manendra Mohan, 1989) advertising exposure is less expensive than some other marketing tool such as personal selling. Here instead of going from one door to another one for explaining and presenting your products, with only one commercial communication, a large audience is aware of your offer. However advertising and personal selling are complementary. (Arch G. Woodside, 1996) exposure occurs every time when people face a commercial image in a magazine or in a newspaper. In this situation if she reads or doesn’t read the message which accompanies that image, it has low impact on the advertising campaign because the same image itself has already had a big influence on that person. (Christopher J. Ferguson et al, 2012) exposure to a media such as television can’t be enough for causing weight gain problem. “The relationship between a customer and a firm exists because of mutual expectations built on trust, good faith, and fair dealing in their interaction” (O.C.Ferrell, 2004). That relationship about company and consumer in the market place, follow a simple process that allow each one to well understand other through require information from consumer side and market analysis from company side by using repetitively for a company same images for different advertising campaign, it can lead these campaigns to failure and above all give a wrong understanding of the message of the product that the company wants the market to take into consideration (Anne M. Cronin, 2000). So regarding that, advertising allow us to well understand the deep relationship between consumer, company, brand and company’s offers or products (Danielle Jackson, (undated)). In that relationship, company might benefit more such a way that she becomes well and better know from public and establish a kind of partnership with his target audience (C. B. Bhattacharya & Sankar Sen, 2003). Advertising as communication tool for a company is one of the strongest means which may directly influence the market (Xiaoli Nan and Ronald J. Faber, 2004). Advertising can change product image (Max Sutherlan, 2008). (Max Sutherland, 2008) in his analysis highlights the fact that image in advertising create in our mind as consumer a gradual shifts with particular attributes we can have as look on brand. So with repetition process he explains that we can easily notice the difference between two challenging brands, two companies. With commercial communication, one of the most important aspects is the message. Concerning that, for (Roxanne Hovland and Joyce M. Wolburg, 2010) the aim of the message in this domain is about information, persuasion and build a strong relationship with the market. (Robert E. Smith and Xiaojing Yang, 2004) in their reflection highlight the point that creativity which most of time comes from human mind is a key asset of advertising, a significant value to its success.
Definition and Concept of Advertisement
Advertisement is defined as device which attracts and induces people to accept a product (Laver, 2004). This is having been supported by Anthony (2007) that advertisement is a marketing tool to attract prospective customers to company and its product or services. It is also a form of communication with the aim of persuading it audience to a particular action (Diamond, 2013). In the view of Chirs (2005). Advertisement can be personal and non – personal. Non-personal advertisement is a promotion of product or service done through the media outlet (Christ, 2005). Though the role of advertisement marketing has been changing with time (Ryverson, 2011), its main objective remains. The objective of advertisement includes to create awareness of a product, to persuade people to accept and patronize a product, to make a product or service superior to other products or services and to create good image and goodwill for a company (Ryverson, 2011). Out of all the marketing tools, advertising is known for its permanent effect on viewer’s mindset. It has an extensive and broader exposure to the consumer (Katke, 2007). Advertisement is an effective tool to lure consumers and to shift their attitude confidently toward a good (Niazi et al. 2012). Naizi et al added that advertising is marketing persuasive tactic to win people’s attention for a particular product or service. It is a subcategory of promotion mix which is a part of the 4P’s in the marketing mix i.e. product, price, place and promotion. As a promotional approach, advertisements serve as a key approach to creating product awareness in the mindset of a possible customer make a buying decision (Latif and Abideen, 2011). Anandet al., (2009) indicated in their work that every advertisement tactic comprises two focal features which direct and inform the advertisement. The information is mostly offered to the aimed audience via the company’s chosen advertising medium. Investigators have settled on six essential pillars on which advertisement can be done: to raise awareness; to get attention; to create and maintain that awareness; to develop want; to provoke action and to establish good will (Shahid, 1999). When one chooses a suitable tactic and then decides on the advertisement aims and objectives, media selection is the next vital concern. Media is the wheel for delivery of the information. Some vital channels of advertisement are magazines, radio, newspapers, television, direct mail and mail order, outdoor display and transportation (Wells et al., 2000).
According to Udochi (2013), T.V adverts are normally considered as the most active mass market advertisement and this is revealed by the high cost television networks charge for airtime advertisement especially during famous television events. T.V adverts are seen between programmes, but interrupt the programmes at intervals also. This approach for running advertisement is supposed to take the attention of T.V audience and keep the viewers focused on the T.V shows in that; they might not flip their channels. Instead, they will see the advert while holding on for the continuation of the show. This is a strategy of putting the viewer in suspense, such that during the break, they wait for the show to continue. TV still is the most potent medium for getting in touch with customers’ today and it is also the most prudent method of presenting customers to brands. Advertising through TV is appreciated by both literates and illiterates and thus considered distinct from other advertising mediums (Swati, 2013). Several scholarly works in different societies of the globe has shown that TV has the greatest impact on viewers and coaxes them to purchase a product. Television has three key advantages over other advertising media. It first influences consumers’ taste and perception and it’s prevalent. It can also reach an extensive large number of audiences in a cost-efficient manner. Its nature (sound and moving images) leaves the audience with a lasting impact (Ramalingam et al., 2006). Over the years the television has become a common item own by all upper and middle class households and it is easy to find it even in the homes of the lower class and in poorer societies. TV is also become a common item in rural communities, confirming its importance in advertisement in the recent times (Lalitha, 2013). TV advertisement impact every one, children and adults and Priyaet al., (2009) has shown that television advertisements have a profound impact on children’s behavior and their resulting buying decisions. Henley (2009) investigated the efficiency of TV shows on parenting methods and parents’ attitudes. The results showed that 75% of the respondents often watch TV programs for educational purposes and TV programs had significant impact on their lives. Television advertisement therefore has several merits among them as mentioned by Udochi (2013) are: Goods can be successfully illustrated to the comprehension of the receiver; the deaf people can see and probably appreciate T.V adverts; It can reach both literate and illiterate people; It is planed based on time and are shown mostly in the evenings; it can simply arrest the attention of the viewer as well.
Concepts of Consumer buying Behavior
According to Solomon et al. (2008,) consumer behavior can be defined as the activities employed by a consumer when considering goods and or services to satisfy his needs or want. It includes assessing, finding, using and positioning of the good or service in addition to related decision-making processes. Also, Riyadh (1993), indicated in his work that, the decision making process may be done by an individual without the interference from anybody or carried out by more than one person as in the case of family. The process also involves both mental and physical activities. The consumer behavior is often goaloriented, not random or unintentional. Every consumer has a goal seeking to be satisfied. The complex consumer buying behavior can be comprehended when the concepts connected to this behavior are understood. Consumers’ buying behaviors basically results from reasons and inducements. While reasons are the inner factors that make the consumer to behave the way he does, inducements are exterior factors representing rewards the consumer expects from buying the products. Consumers buying behavior is known to go through three major successive stages; pre-purchase decision, purchase decision and post – purchase decision (Al-Haaj et al, 1990). The consumer buying behavior is complex. This is because the factors that influence the consumer to behave in a particular manner are many, and every consumer is expected to act in a manner that differs from others, as a result of individual differences among people. Also, since human behavior changes with lifestyles, it is difficult to predict accurately what happens in the consumers’ mind. Models (Traditional or micro approaches and comprehensive or macro approaches) have however been developed over the years to identified the factors in the buying decision making processes (Al-Hinnawi and Salih (1984). The traditional models which usually start from a specific angle include; the economic model (Al-Jeraisy,2003), the Pavlov model (Al-Musa‘id&Zaki Khaleel,1997), the Frued model (Al-Obaidi,1996), the Fiblin model (Askar, 1987).
Factors Influencing Consumers’ Buying Behaviour
The study on the basis of Kotler (2003) reviewed the various factors that influence consumers’ buying behavior.
The personal factors include demographic factors such as age, educational attainment, sex; and economic factors like occupation or income level. Age: Consumers change the commodities they buy with time (Dorota, 2013). Taste for consumer goods like food, clothing and baby diapers are related with age. As people grow, their desire changes (Solomon et al., 2008). The older people have more purchasing experience than the younger people. The older people consider the diversified options of goods through experience they have developed through time. However, Vasquesz and Xu (2009) indicated that young people are exposed to variety of goods through technology, especially internet. The young people are exposed to modern technology such as internet to search for information on available consumer product; hence they are exposed to varieties of products than older adults (Monsuwe, et al., 2004). Older people are not friendly to modern technology and Internet in particular is seen as risky environment by older adult since they have less knowledge about it and they are also used to insisting on trying products before purchase. Income: Occupation is another factor that influences consumers’ buying behaviour. Occupation is a proxy for income which is an important factor in consumers’ buying behaviour. Dorota (2013) notes that income is superior determinant of purchasing behavior. The level of income affects the life style and attitude of a consumer. A person with high income purchase expensive product and these with low income prefer to buy product with lower price. Consumers with lower income approach buying of baby diapers more carefully and they are more sensitive to price change. Parents with high income would have positive approach to buying baby diapers than parents with lower income. Parents with high income tend to buy more baby diapers than parents with lower income (Lohse et al., 2000). Junaid et al (2013) found in their study of female buying behaviour of cosmetic products in New Delhi and NCR that, as income of female’s increase, their purchase of cosmetic products also increases. Gender: Gender has a role to play in consumer buying behavior, especially buying of baby diapers. According to Dorota (2013) women and men perform different roles at homes and they have different demand for certain consumer goods. Gender differentiates consumption behavior. According to Dorota (2013) women and men perform different roles in every household; they have different demands for certain products as well as they behave differently in the process of consumption. Women usually care for baby than the men and baby diapers than men (Hasan, 2010). Hernandez et al (2011) have observed that this gap has started to decrease and it has found that ‘an increasing number of men buy baby diapers. In view of this marketing strategies differentiates gender buying behavior thus female are more emotional and easily be attracted by advertisements compared to male (Imam, 2013). Another study also shows female are the one who have more baby diapers shopping experience than males (Irini, 2012). However, Global PL-Trand (2010) study influence of gender on consumer buying behavior revealed that gender has no significant influence on buying behavior.
Culture has been identified to have a substantial influence on consumers’ opinions with regards to a product. Choices of a consumer can be linked to the cultural backgrounds of people. This factor is considered when satisfying the needs of people within a particular community. An individual’s traditions, values, ethics, social class and sub culture largely affect his perceptions, preferences and choice of a product. In today’s society, How the consumer thinks and act as well as and what he represents is largely affected by his culture (Kardes et al. 2008). Social classes: Social classes are a groups ranked against each other according to a form of social hierarchy. Social class has its values, lifestyle, interest and behavior and this makes a social class different from others. Smith and Rupp (2003) noted that different social class creates different behavior. For example, consumers from lower social class would not higher intention to buy things considered as luxury like baby diapers. Kotler and Armstrong (2010) identified that set of values and belief that consumers are exposed to at the early ages influence their want and need. Every society possesses some form of social class and this is important in marketing of consumer goods such as baby diapers. Marketers try to tailor their activities according to different social class. Authors such has Dorota (2013) have indicated that social perception of a brand or a retailer is playing a role in the behavior and purchasing decisions of consumers. In addition, the consumer buying behavior may also change according to social class. A consumer from the lower class will be more focused on price. While a shopper from the upper class will be more attracted to elements such as quality, features and even social benefit (Rani, 2014). Sub-culture: A society is composed of several subcultures in which people can identify. Subcultures are groups of people who share the same values based on a common experience or a similar lifestyle in general. Each culture contains different subcultures such as religions, nationalities, geographic regions, racial groups etc. Marketers can use these groups by segmenting the market into various small portions. For example, in recent years, the segment of ethnic cosmetics has greatly expanded. These are products more suited to non-Caucasian populations and to types of skin pigmentation for African, Arab or Indian populations for example. It’s a real brand positioning with a well-defined target in a sector that only offered makeup products to a Caucasian target until now (with the exception of niche brands) and was then receiving critics from consumers of different origin. Brands often communicate in different ways, sometimes even create specific products (sometimes without significant intrinsic difference) for the same type of product in order to specifically target an age group, a gender or a specific sub-culture. Consumers are usually more receptive to products and marketing strategies that specifically target them.[email protected][email protected]