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The Effect of Twitter Ban in Nigeria Among the Universities of Benin and Benson Idahosa Edo State

 

ABSTRACT

This study was on the effect of twitter ban in Nigeria among the Universities of Benin and Benson Idahosa Edo state. Three objectives were raised which included: To find out the causes of twitter ban in Nigeria, to find out the effect of twitter ban among Universities of Benin and Benson Idahosa Edo state and to determine if the Nigeria Government Twitter ban is a bridge to the fundamental human rights of her citizens. The total population for the study is 75 lecturers and students of Universities of Benin and Benson Idahosa in Edo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

 

Chapter one

Introduction

1.1Background of the study

Social media is the term often used to refer to new forms of media that involve interactive participation. Often the development of media is divided into two different ages, the broadcast age and the interactive age. In the broadcast age, media were almost exclusively centralized where one entity such as a radio or television station, newspaper company, or a movie production studio distributed messages to many people. Feedback to media outlets was often indirect, delayed, and impersonal. Mediated communication between individuals typically happened on a much smaller level, usually via personal letters, telephone calls, or sometimes on a slightly larger scale through means such as photocopied family newsletters. With the rise of digital and mobile technologies, interaction on a large scale became easier for individuals than ever before; and as such, a new media age was born where interactivity was placed at the center of new media functions  Gerbaudo, P. (2012). One individual could now speak to many, and instant feedback was a possibility. Where citizens and consumers used to have limited and somewhat muted voices, now they could share their opinions with many. The low cost and accessibility of new technology also allowed more options for media consumption than ever before and so instead of only a few news outlets, individuals now have the ability to seek information from several sources and to dialogue with others via message forums about the information posted. At the core of this ongoing revolution is social media. The characteristics, common forms, and common functions of social media are explored here (Edwards, 2013)

Shutting down of Twitter by the Nigerian government, many young business owners, students, social media influencers, and activists have been adversely affected, and Global Voices spoke to them to understand the impact of the ban on their lives and businesses. Fears about the possible expansion of the suspension to other social media platforms such as Instagram has exacerbated their concerns (https://globalvoices.org)

The shock of the Nigerian government’s June 4, 2021 banning of Twitter still reverberates. The Nigerian government banned the social media platform after Twitter deemed harmful and deleted a tweet by President Muhammadu Buhari which suggested that the state would use violence against the Igbo ethnic group (Ajazeera New, 2021)

Since then, many have speculated that the government’s suspension of the microblogging platform was also in retaliation for Twitter’s support for the youth-led October 2020 #ENDSARS movement against police brutality (Ajazeera New, 2021). Based on this the researcher wants to find out the effect of twitter ban in Nigeria among the Universities of Benin and Benson Idahosa Edo state

Statement of the problem

Immediately, Nigerian Twitter users such as Ojukwu started to oppose the ban using virtual private networks (VPNs), decrying the restriction on freedom of expression on the entire citizenry for at best, vague reasons. We’re running a campaign on Justice Education. What better time to continue tweeting than now? The Twitter ban, itself, is a violation of Nigerians’ right to freedom of expression,” she tells Huck. But the Nigerian government, it seemed, was not done with its restrictions, as the Office of the Attorney-General of the Federation immediately ordered the immediate arrest and prosecution of any Nigerian who circumvented the ban. The ban on Twitter by the Federal Government is an infringement of those rights guaranteed under the Nigerian Constitution, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights which Nigeria is a signatory to, as well as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which we are also signatory to.

Many Universities are on twitter and is the platform they reach about to students and the general public. the study will want to know the effect of twitter ban in Nigeria among Universities of Benin and Idahosa Edo state

Objective of the study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To find out the causes of twitter ban in Nigeria
  2. To find out the effect of twitter ban among Universities of Benin and Benson Idahosa Edo state
  3. To determine if the Nigeria Government Twitter ban is a bridge to the fundamental human rights of her citizens

Research question

  1. What is the causes of twitter ban in Nigeria?
  2. What is the effect of twitter ban among Universities of Benin and Benson Idahosa Edo state?
  3. Do Nigeria Government Twitter ban is a bridge to the fundamental human rights of her citizens?

Research hypotheses

Hypothesis 1

Ho: there are no causes of twitter ban in Nigeria.

Hithere are causes of twitter ban in Nigeria.

Hypothesis 2

Ho: there are no effect of twitter ban among Universities of Benin and Benson Idahosa Edo state.

Hi: there are effect of twitter ban among Universities of Benin and Benson Idahosa Edo state

Hypothesis 3

Ho: Nigeria Government Twitter ban is a not bridge to the fundamental human rights of her citizens.

Hi: Nigeria Government Twitter ban is a bridge to the fundamental human rights of her citizens

Significance of the study

The findings from this study will be relevant to all the arms of the government and to the citizens of Nigeria. Theoretically and empirically, the study will enlighten the arms of the government, especially the judiciary, on the need to re-assess the current restriction/ban on the Twitter platform, having in mind that internet freedom is important. As a result, all restrictions must be based on clear, specific, and easily accessible statute law. Those regulatory authorities applying the laws restricting freedom of expression on social media must be entirely independent, accountable and with adequate safeguards in place to avoid arbitrariness. Furthermore, the study will contribute to the body of knowledge, serve as a reference material, and be extremely beneficial to students and researchers who may be interested in gathering or conducting studies related to the topic under study

Scope of the study

The scope of the study covers the effect of twitter ban in Nigeria among the Universities of Benin and Benson Idahosa Edo state. The study will be limited to Universities of Benin and Benson Idahosa in Edo state

Limitation of the study

The following factors poses to be a limitation during the course of this research

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Definition of terms

Twitter: Twitter is an American micro-blogging and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as “tweets”. Registered users can post, like, and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them.

Twitter Ban: this is the authoritative pause in the operation of twitter as mandated by the Federal government of Nigeria on June 5th 2021 until the owners of the social network meet the newly established requirement given to them by the government of Nigeria.

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