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Download this complete Project material titled; The Evaluation Of Ceramic Waste As Partial Replacement Of Coarse Aggregate In Hot Mix Asphalt with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

The study investigates the suitability of ceramic waste aggregate (CWA) as partial replacement for coarse aggregate in asphalt concrete. In order to achieve the aim of the study, consistency tests such as sieve analysis, aggregate crushing and impact value, water absorption, particle shape (flakiness and elongation) and specific gravity were conducted for coarse aggregate and ceramic waste aggregate. Asphalt briquettes, using 100% conventional coarse aggregate (control) and variations of ceramic waste aggregate from 10%, 20%, 30% 40% and 50% were prepared. The mechanical property (Marshall Tests) was conducted for all prepared briquettes. From the test results, it was observed that the stability value of conventional coarse aggregate (control) gave 4kN and that of CWA 20% and 50% gave 4.0kN and 3.59kN respectively as against 3.5kN as minimum value specified in Nigerian General Specification for Roads and Bridges (1990). The corresponding results for flow, voids in total mix and voids filled with bitumen for sample containing 0% CWA are: 2.88mm, 4.20% and 71.93% respectively. Samples containing 20% CWA had flow, voids in total mix and voids filled with bitumen values as 2.77mm, 4.8%, and 73.93% respectively and samples containing 50% CWA had flow, voids in total mix as 2.58mm and 10.80% respectively. This shows that the 0% to 20% falls under specification of VIM 3% – 5%. The optimum bitumen content of 6.0% and higher stability of 4kN was recorded at a variation of 20% CWA and 80% conventional coarse aggregate. From this study, it can be concluded that up to 20% ceramic waste aggregate can be utilized as coarse aggregate in asphalt concrete for lightly trafficked roads.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page ———————————————————————————————ii
Declaration ———————————————————————————————iii
Certification ——————————————————————————————–iv
Acknowledgement ———————————————————————————–v
Dedication ———————————————————————————————-vi
Table of Contents ————————————————————————————vii
List of Tables ————————————————————————————–x
List of Figures ————————————————————————————-xi
List of Plates ————————————————————————————–xii
List of Appendices ————————————————————————————xiii
Abbreviations and Notations ———————————————————————–xiv
Abstract ———————————————————————————–xv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ————————————————————–1
1.1 Background ————————————————————————————1
1.2 Statement of Problem ——————————————————————2
1.3 Aim and Objectives ——————————————————————3
1.3.1 Aim ——————————————————————3
1.3.2 Objectives ——————————————————————3
1.4 Justification of the Study ————————————————————3
1.5 Scope of Study ————————————————4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ———————————————–5
2.1 Introduction ———————————————————————————–5
2.2 Ceramic Wastes ————————————————————————–6
2.2.1 Recycling of Ceramic Waste ——————————————————–8
2.2.1.1 Ceramic waste as Recycled Aggregate ————————————-8
2.2.2 Using waste as Recycled Aggregate in Structural Concrete ——————-10
2.2.3 Ceramic waste and the Environmental Issues ———————————–10
2.2.4 Use of Ceramic waste in Asphalt and Road Work —————————-12
2.3 Asphalt Concrete ——————————————————13
2.3.1 Materials for Improvement of Asphalt Pavement ——————————-14
2.4 Aggregates ——————————————————15
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2.5 Brief History of Bituminous Materials ———————————————-15
2.6 Constituent Materials Characterisation ———————————————-16
2.6.1 Effect of Temperature and Binder Viscosity ————————————-17
2.6.2 Effect of Binder Content ——————————————–20
2.6.3 Effect of Type and Quantity of Coarse Aggregate ——————————-20
2.6.3.1 Aggregate Desirable Properties ——————————————-21
2.6.4 Specific Gravity ——————————————–24
2.6.5 Effect of Type and Quantity of Fine Aggregates ——————————–24
2.6.6 Effect of Type and Proportion of Filler ————————————-24
2.6.7 Degree of Compaction ————————————-25
2.7 Design Methods for Bituminous mix ———————————————25
2.7.1 Marshall Method ———————————————27
2.7.1.1 Analysis of Results from Marshall Test —————————-32
2.7.1.2 Problems of Marshall Stability ————————————34
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS ————————————-36
3.1 Preamble ———————————————————————————-36
3.2 Materials ———————————————————————————36
3.2.1 Bitumen ————————————————————————-36
3.2.2 Coarse Aggregate —————————————————————-37
3.2.3 Fine Aggregate —————————————————————-37
3.2.4 Mineral Aggregate —————————————————————-38
3.3 Methodology ———————————————————————–39
3.3.1 Consistency Test —————————————————————39
3.3.1.1 Setting Time Test ——————————————————39
3.3.1.2 Specific gravity Test ——————————————————-39
3.3.2 Aggregate (Coarse and Ceramic waste) ——————————————41
3.4 Marshall Mix Design ———————————————44
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ———————————-49
4.1 Introduction: Properties of Constituent Materials ———————————–49
4.1.1 Tests on Bitumen —————————————————————-49
4.1.2 Properties of Filler —————————————————————-49
4.1.3 Physical Properties of Aggregates ———————————————-49
4.1.4 Particle Size distribution ——————————————————-50
4.2 Effect of Ceramic waste aggregate on Stability ————————————-52
4.3 Effect of Ceramic waste aggregate on Flow ————————————-53
ix
4.4 Effect of CWA on CDM ——————————————————-54
4.5 Effect of CWA on Voids in total mix ———————————————-54
4.6 Effect of CWA on the VMA ——————————————————-55
4.7 Effect of CWA on VFB ——————————————————-55
4.8 Optimum Bitumen Content ——————————————————-57
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS————————62
5.1 Conclusion ————————————————————————62
5.2 Recommendation ————————————————————————62
REFERENCES ————————————————————————63
APPENDICES ———————————————————————–67

 

Project Topics

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
The overall relevance of asphalt concrete in civil engineering practice cannot be overemphasized. The growing concern of resource depletion and global pollution has challenged many researchers and engineers to seek and develop new materials relying on renewable resources. These include the use of by-products and waste materials in highway construction. Although there has been much research conducted on the structural performance of asphalt concrete, these are mostly confined to naturally occurring aggregates, manufactured aggregates and aggregates from industrial by-products. In recent years, initiatives have been instigated on a global and national level to control and regulate waste management. Regulations have become increasingly rigorous and consequently, options which are still rarely used at present, such as minimizing or recycling waste, are becoming economically attractive. All recycling and reuse of waste products involve research aimed at acquiring a full understanding of such products in order to determine suitable and specific applications (Sanchez et al., 2007). Highways are high cost structures, and for that reason, it is obligatory that the materials to be used for their constructions should be appropriately designed. Flexible pavements are designed so as to have a 20 years project life. For this reason, the load distributions that would occur on these structures should also be calculated and included in the design process (Serin, et al., 2012).
The current research subject focuses on economically increasing the performance and life span of roads through the use of ceramic waste as a partial replacement for coarse aggregates. On one hand, the cost of deposition of ceramic waste in landfill will be saved and, on the other, raw materials and natural resources will be replaced, thus saving energy and protecting the
2
environment (Mehta, 2001). Wang et al. (2006) reported that the inclusion of higher percentages of ceramic waste as filler in asphalt concrete led to improvements in stability value and the Marshall stability. Evangelista and de Brito (2007) analysed the feasibility of reusing CDW as fine aggregate in concretes, in proportions of 30% in concrete without noting any relevant reduction in compressive strength. González and Martinez, (2005) established maximum proportions of ceramic waste as aggregate as 50% in concrete in order to achieve strength characteristics greater than 30 N/mm2 with the need to increase the water/cement ratio by approximately 6% . Dennis, (2009) reported that the results of tests on the performance of asphalt binder mixed with fine fiber reinforcing plastic (FRP) powder and thermoplastic shows that the thermoplastic melted during mixing and separated from the asphalt after being cooled. There is therefore, need to use materials that do not melt to avoid changes in the performance of the binder. 1.2 Statement of Problem Environmental wastes caused by technological and industrial development are increasing, whereas natural resource and disposal areas for those wastes are decreasing day by day. So recycling and reuse of waste materials has become crucial in terms of protection of environment and the economy. Using industrial waste material such as ceramic waste makes good economic sense for project owners and contractors since it is widely available. Industrial materials are often less expensive than the virgin materials they replace. Putting industrial materials such as ceramic waste to use in infrastructure projects will solve several environmental problems, on one hand avoiding the extraction of large quantities of raw materials from the earth and by reducing the landfill areas that otherwise would be occupied by these wastes.
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Plate I. A view from ceramic waste landfill site of Ceramic Factory in Lagos.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
1.3.1 Aim
The aim of this research is to evaluate the use of ceramic waste as partial replacement of coarse
aggregates in the production of asphalt concrete. The aim of the study will be achieved through
the following objectives.
1.3.2 Objectives
i. To determine the physical properties of the coarse aggregates and ceramic wastes
aggregates.
ii. To determine the consistency test on the bitumen used in the production of Hot Mix
Asphalt.
iii. To conduct Marshall Stability tests in order to determine the optimum bitumen content of
asphalt mix produced with conventional aggregate and CWA.
iv. To determine the effect of different percentages of ceramic waste as partial replacement
to coarse aggregate in Hot Mix Asphalt.
1.4 Justification of the Study
Waste material recycling into useful products is one of the main ways of solving waste disposal
problems. Many highway agencies are conducting wide range of studies and research on the
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feasibility, environmental suitability, and performance of using recycled products in highway construction (Wang et al., 2006). Some of the major environmental problems arise from the disposal of ceramic waste as being non biodegradable waste, landfill problems. The replacement of coarse aggregate with ceramic waste in asphalt production is an important environmental benefit. It avoids the extraction of large quantities of raw materials from the earth, also avoids energy costs and landfill problems. 1.5 Scope of Study The scope of this research covers the study of mechanical properties of modified asphalt concrete with traditional coarse aggregate using ceramic waste of aggregates with variation percentage of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%.

 

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