The Impact Of Educational Facilities On The Academic Performance Of Students In Government Secondary Schools (A Case Study Of Orumba South Local Government Area)
The study was on the Impact of School Facilities on Students‘ Academic Performances in Government secondary schools in Orumba local government area in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study adopted the use of descriptive survey research design and out of the total population of 2093, 628 copies of questionnaire were administered, but only 600 were correctly filled and returned, consisting of24 principals and 576 teachers. The instrument tagged, ―School Facilities on Students Academic Performance Questionnaire,(SFSAPQ) in Government secondary schools In
Orumba local government area Questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. This instrument was validated and pilot tested and a reliability index of 0.85 was obtained. Data gathered were analysed using t-test at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study among others revealed that there is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and principals on the impact of teaching facilities on students‘ academic performance in Government secondary schools in Orumba local government area in Anambra State. Also, finding shows that there is no significant difference in the view of respondents on the impact of welfare/health facilities on students academic performances in secondary schools in Orumba local government area in Anambra State. In view of the findings, it was concluded that school facilities remain one essential factor in the realization of the goals of secondary education. The researcher recommended that: government and school managers should make effort to provide teaching and learning facilities such as chairs, tables, laboratories, computers/ICT, and classrooms in Government secondary schools in Orumba local government area in Anambra State, Nigeria.
1.1 Background to the study
An effective school facility is responsive to the changing programs of educational delivery, and at a minimum should provide a physical environment that is comfortable, safe, secure, accessible, well illuminated, well ventilated, and aesthetically pleasing. The school facility consists of not only the physical structure and the variety of building systems, such as mechanical, plumbing, electrical and power, telecommunications, security, and fire suppression systems. The facility also includes furnishings, materials and supplies, equipment and information technology, as well as various aspects of the building grounds, namely, athletic fields, playgrounds, areas for outdoor learning, and vehicular access and parking. The subject of school facilities had received great attention from the public as well as educators in recent times. According to Building educational success Together (BEST, 2005), it was reported that the responsibility of every administrator is to ensure that every child had access to quality education in school facilities that provide an educational setting that was suited for teaching and learning. Also, implementing educational policies that resulted in high quality, high performance, and well designed and maintained school facilities had a direct and indirect impact on the teaching and learning process (BEST, 2005). Effective facilities management therefore contributes to the success of every student in any school. In a study carried out by Hale (2002) reveals that students in class rooms with large windows, natural lighting and well-designed skylights were found to perform well from 19 to 25% better than their peers in classroom without these features. Not only environmental conditions in schools affect the students but also the staff as observed by (Hunter, 2006) which include the inoperative heating system, inadequate ventilation and poor lighting system. The overall building condition, the age of the building, and the windows as well as the instructional areas were positively related to students achievement in learning (Bullock, 2007).
It is evident in their contributions (Broome, 2005; Hughes, 2005; Lyons, 2001) that students‘ achievement depends upon the physical school facility, its age, the design and the condition of the school. School facilities played a significant role in directing the task of teaching and that of shaping students learning process in and out of school. No doubt, school building as a tool for instituting an effective teaching and learning process constituted sizeable investment of public funds over its development and maintenance by the administrators.
Today, most of the school facilities which are supposed to promote and enhanced teaching, learning and extra-curricular activities in secondary education are absolute and thereby, creating serious challenges to the 21st century educational needs of the learners.
Others are dilapidated and not suitable to motivate secondary students to learn. School/Educational facilities are otherwise referred to as school facilities. The school facilities are the physical facilities provided for in the school, such as the school site, the buildings and equipment. These facilities are likened to capital in any industrial settings. In understanding the national goal of developing the educational system so as to provide a satisfactory flow of men and women, capable of acquiring the skills necessary to exploit to the fullest, the natural resources of the country makes it imperative for facilities to be abundantly available in schools. Buildings are needed to shelter staff and students, sports/games facilities are needed to develop the mental, social and physical aspects of the students.
School facilities are made up of the school land all the physical structure on it. It refers to the school building, the play grounds, the equipment and other material resources provided in the school for effective teaching and learning operations, (Onuorah,2004).The school facilities is the space interpretation of the school curriculum(Mgbodile,1986).Similarly, it was defined according to Ani (1997), thatSchool facilities include the fixed and mobile structure and materials in the school such as the classroom buildings, laboratory equipment, the furniture, the chalkboard, audio and visual aids. School facilities mean all facilities and equipment within the school, which are used by the members of the school community (Abraham, 2003).
It was asserted that no matter the strength of manpower resources in the system, educational processes must require conducive physical accommodation, libraries, furniture‘s and playground (Nwaogu,1985). When these instructional facilities are lacking, it can affect negatively the productivity of the teachers. Learning takes place better and faster in a school environment with high level of buildings, accommodations, furniture‘s, and equipment, than in an environment where all these items are lacking. Adesina and Ogunsanji(1984) in their recognition of the need for a well-equipped school noted that for effective teaching and learning situations, physical facilities and educational goals should be viewed as being closely interwoven and inter-dependent. Apart from protecting students from sun, rain, heat and cold, the school building represents a learning environment which has a tremendous impact on the learners. Therefore, in order to facilitate this high level of teaching and learning process, there is need for well-planned and organized school facilities. A conducive teaching and learning environment is important to the quality of teachers engaged in the inculcation of desired attributes to the students. Stressing further, the impact of environment on teaching and learning to be effective, the school building and its surroundings must be free from threats, hostility and frustration. He suggested the following materials should be made available for teacher‘s use to enhance learning which are, textbook, programmed materials and devices, newspaper and magazines, and other library material, pictures, slides, film strips ,maps, globes ,charts, motion pictures, radio, television, chalkboards and chalks, specimens to concretize the ideas and stimulates imagination.
1.2 Statement of the problem
For any school to function effectively, the school facilities mustbe in good condition. Thus the general public has expressed concern over the insufficiency of school facilities in Orumba schools. To many, the condition of facilities in the school is a major criterion for selecting school for their children. In spite of this concernand demand for a change, it appears that the management of physical facilities in Anambra state schools leaves much to be desired.
It is not uncommon these days to see some classrooms full of potholes on the floor comparable to the scenes on the roads. Children scarcely find space to sit or move about. Lack of ceilings makes classrooms extremely hot for learning activities in hot weather. Some buildings have sagging roofs on them. When facilities are not maintained, they constitute health hazards to the users of the facilities. Teachers on their own will not perform effectively without facilities. The Students‘ academic performance will be negatively affected; the tone of the school will be at its lowest ebb and human and material resources.
It is in view of the importance of school facilities to the attainment of educational objectives that the study investigated such activities in school, since the importance of school facilities is not in doubt and since it is in a very deplorable condition in Orumba local government area, a change for the better needs not be over emphasized. The problem of this study therefore is the impact of school facilities on students‘ academic performances in government secondary schools in Orumba local government area.
1.3 Objectives of the study
- determine the impact of teaching facilities on student academic performances in government secondary schools in Orumba local government area;
- examine the impact of learning facilities on students‘ academic performance in government secondary schools in Orumba local government area;
- investigate the impact of health facilities on students‘ academic performance in government secondary schools in Orumba local government area
- find out the impact of sport facilities on students‘ academic performance in government secondary schools in Orumba Educational zone and
- ascertain the impact of recreational facilities on students‘ academic performances in public secondary schools in Orumba local government area.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide this study.
- What is the impact of teaching facilities on students‘ academic performance in public secondary school in Orumba local government area?
- How do learning facilities impact the academic performance of students in government secondary schools in Orumba local government area?
- What is the impact of health facilities on the academic performance of students in government secondary schools in Orumba local government area?
- Do sports facilities impact the academic performance of students in government secondary schools in Orumba local government area?
- What is the impact of recreational facilities on students‘ performance in public
secondary schools in Orumba local government area?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
For the purpose of this research, the following null hypotheses were formulated, to test at 0.05 level of significance.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the opinions of Principals and teachers on the impact of teaching facilities on students‘ academic performances in secondary schools in Orumba local government area.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of learning facilities on the academic performances of student in secondary schools in Orumba local government area.
Ho3 There is no significant difference in the view of respondents on the impact of health facilities on students‘ academic performances in secondary schools in Orumba local government area.
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of sport facilities on student academic performances in secondary schools in Orumba local government area.
Ho5: There is no significant difference in the view of respondents on the impact of recreational facilities on students‘ academic performances in secondary schools in Orumba local government area.
1.7Significance of the study
Policy makers will be well equipped with reliable and factual information which serves as an input for effective law making on issues relating to allocation of funds, timely released period and the legal framework guiding its
1.8 Scope of the study
This research focuses on the impact of school facilities on students‘ academic performances in government secondary schools in Orumba educational zone. In doing this, The research is narrowed to public secondary school to enable the researcher minimize the cost of covering a large area as an individual researcher, and to enable the researcher conduct a meaningful study within the short possible time as permitted for this Programme of study.