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The Impact of Farmers-herders Conflict on Agricultural Production: Yagba West L.G.A. Of Kogi State 1999-2019


This study examined the impact of farmers-herders conflict on agricultural production: Yagba West L.G.A. of Kogi state 1999-2019. The research explored the repercussions of the conflict on various sectors, including trade and commerce, agriculture, education, and demographic patterns. Through a comprehensive review of the literature and recent in-text citations, this study provided insights into the economic consequences faced by the local population. The findings revealed that the farmers-herders conflict significantly disrupted trade and commerce in Yagba West L.G.A. The presence of armed groups and the fear of insecurity created a hostile environment for businesses and traders. Markets, once vibrant centres of economic activity, experienced a decline in business, reduced customer footfall, and limited trading opportunities. The study highlighted the adverse effects on agriculture, as farmers were forced to abandon their farms or reduce cultivation, resulting in decreased crop yields and a decline in food production. This led to increased food insecurity and heightened poverty levels within the community. Furthermore, education was profoundly impacted by the conflict, with school closures and the destruction of educational infrastructure disrupting learning activities. The interruption of education had long-term implications, hampering human capital development, reducing employment opportunities, and hindering economic growth. The study also emphasized the influence of the conflict on demographic patterns, as it caused displacement and migration within the community. Based on the findings, this study offered recommendations to mitigate the economic impact of the conflict, including enhancing security measures, revitalizing markets, supporting agricultural recovery, investing in education infrastructure, promoting peacebuilding and dialogue, fostering public-private partnerships, developing economic diversification strategies, and strengthening data collection and monitoring. Overall, this study provided valuable insights into the economic consequences of the farmers-herders conflict in Yagba West L.G.A., emphasizing the need for strategic interventions to restore economic stability, improve livelihoods, and foster sustainable development in the area.




Background to the Study

There are many different interactions between farmers and herders, including intermarried couples and agricultural output. Abiodun (2016) emphasised the benefits of the historical partnership between herders and farmers that they shared through subsistence farming, but he also emphasised the detrimental effects of fighting over these long relationships. In the north and north-central regions of Nigeria, namely, herding and farming were the main economic activity and growth. Despite Nigeria’s enormous land mass and impressive potential to increase agricultural output and ensure food security, particularly in northern regions, intense conflicts have hampered this process and heightened the perception that climate change and other natural phenomena pose a threat to agricultural services.

The conflict between herders and farmers in Nigeria, according to Abubakar (2018), has resulted in the destruction of crops and other farm infrastructure owing to livestock grazing, which affects food production. Similar claims were made by Tenuche & Ifatimehin (2019), who stated that clashes between farmers and herders on the borders of Nasarawa and Benue states led to about fifty (50) fatalities and 20,000 displaced individuals in ten (10) communities. Similar to this, the Global Terrorism Index Report (2019) asserted that hostilities have become more frequent, intense, and global in scope, with terrible human, social, political, and economic ramifications. The Global Terrorism Index Report examined the plague of the unfavourable connection between herders and farmers, which is made worse by climatic circumstances brought on by global warming and resulting in the devastation of life, food security, water, and land for grazing or farming. They confirmed that the battle between herders and farmers had claimed the lives of roughly 5,281 people.

The bulk of Nigerians depends on agricultural output for their livelihood and economic survival. The nation’s nutritional demands are significantly met by farmers and herders, who also contribute to household food security (Adetula, 2017). When all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs for an active and healthy life, they are said to have food security at the individual, home, national, regional, and global levels. According to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), in 2017 individuals experience food insecurity when they do not have sufficient physical or financial access to food.

Statement of the Research Problem

Different residents of the many communities in Kogi State have been outraged by the ongoing herdsmen/farmers violence in the recent past. Conflicts have become more dangerous to the point where they are occurring more frequently and end in killings, maimings, and sometimes even the burning of homes and invasions of villages. Agojeju-Idaka in the Dekina Local Government Area is one community in Kogi State where herders invaded the village early in the morning in October 2015 and killed about 23 people. They also destroyed property and set houses on fire. Ajichekpa, Opada, and Agbenema were affected by the attack in the 2018 attack in the Omala Local Government Area in Kogi State, while Amuro in the Mopa Moro Local Government Area in Kogi West and several other communities met the same fate (Oladipo, 2018). Egbolo in the Igalamela/Odolu Local Government Area, Umomi in the Ofu Local Government Area, and (2018). In each of these battles, people died, billions of Naira’s worth of property was damaged, and homes were set on fire. Conflicts between ranchers and farmers have been seen to drastically increase in recent times. Whatever may be the perceived/presumed causes, it is germane to state that thorough research is necessary with a view to unearthing the actual causes of the conflict to take proactive measures that could put a stop to the herders/farmer’s conflict. The continuous neglect of this all-important challenge poses a great threat to peace, unity, security and socio-economic development of the State and Nigeria at large as any problem in any part of the country directly or indirectly hinders food security and national development. Therefore, this research work was undertaken to proffer solutions that could identify early warning signals, and use conflict risk analysis methods and mediation to prevent an eventual crisis.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study will focus on the Impacts of farmers-herders’ conflicts on agricultural production in Yagba West L.G.A of Kogi State 1999-2019. The study will also cover the causes and implications of the conflicts between farmers and herders in Kogi State as well as other parts of Nigeria. The socio-economic and security implications of conflict among farmers and cattle rustlers will be extensively evaluated in this study. Also, the impact of this conflict on food security in Kogi State and other parts of Nigeria will be examined in this study. The time allocated for the completion of this study will determine the extent to which the researcher can cover. Also, the availability of relevant literature as well as the willingness of respondents to provide the needed information for the completion of this study will determine the extent to which the researcher will go in this study.

Aims and Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the Impacts of farmer’s herder conflicts on agricultural production in Yagba West L.G.A of Kogi State 1999-2019. Specific objectives include to:

  1. Identify the causes and implications of herdsmen/farmers’ conflicts in Kogi State.
  2. Examine the impact of herdsmen/farmers’ conflicts on food security in Kogi State.
  3. Examine the social and economic implications of the farmers/herders conflict in Kogi State.


The farmers-herders conflict in Yagba West Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Kogi State, Nigeria, has had significant implications for the local economy and the well-being of its population. Understanding the economic impact of this conflict is crucial for policymakers, stakeholders, and community members to develop effective strategies for recovery and sustainable development.

This study provides a comprehensive examination of the economic consequences of the farmers-herders conflict in Yagba West L.G.A. by analyzing the impact on trade and commerce, agriculture, education, and demographic patterns. By utilizing a combination of literature review and recent in-text citations, this study presents a well-rounded understanding of the challenges faced by the local population.

The findings of this study contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the economic impact of conflicts in rural areas, particularly in the context of Nigeria. The specific focus on Yagba West L.G.A. provides valuable insights into the unique dynamics and challenges faced by the community.

Moreover, this study offers practical recommendations that can guide policymakers and stakeholders in formulating targeted interventions to alleviate the economic hardships caused by the conflict. These recommendations encompass various sectors, including security, trade, agriculture, education, and peacebuilding, providing a comprehensive framework for recovery and sustainable development.

Ultimately, the justification for this study lies in its potential to inform evidence-based decision-making and policy formulation. By highlighting the economic impact of the farmers-herders conflict in Yagba West L.G.A., this study aims to contribute to the development of strategies that promote resilience, economic recovery, and improved livelihoods for the affected population.

Significance of the Study

This study will be highly significant to students and scholars in the field of social sciences. This is attributable to the fact that the literature that will be reviewed will add to their previous knowledge concerning the subject of this study. This research work will significantly benefit stakeholders in the agricultural sector. The findings and recommendations that will be made will serve as a yardstick for conflict prevention/management between cattle herders and farmers in Kogi State and Nigeria in general. This study will also be beneficial to stakeholders in the security sector as well as the Nigerian government. The findings and recommendations that will be made in this study will serve as a framework for security policy formulation.



  • Oyewole, F. (2018). Urbanization and economic development in Yagba West L.G.A. Journal of Urban Studies, 29(2), 110-125.
  • Scarborough H. (2018). British Journal of Management. Vol. 4.
  • Schramm-Neilsen, J. (2018) Conflict Management in Scandinavia. Department of International Communication and Management, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark, Spectrum Books Limited.
  • Tenuche, M.S. & Ifatimehin, O.O. (2019), Resource use Conflict among Farmers and Fulan
  • Uzoma, N. (2020). Agricultural productivity and economic interactions between Yagba West L.G.A. and Obajana. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 47(2), 89-105.


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