1.1 Background to the Study
As a concept, motivation is ambiguous, indefinite and vast. A lot of factors create desire in individuals; and if these desires are not met, the way of life of the individual is affected because his ego is involved. As a concept that tries to give account of how individuals are encouraged or driven to achieve a particular task, it becomes difficult to discuss in concise manner. Motivation in this regard, is centred on employees in their work place. Human beings have needs and desires and most times people’s needs are insatiable. Also unprecedented circumstances, time, and situations may cause motivating factors to change with time.
Many organizations had for decades been confronted with the need to maximize industrial productivity through either the maximization of human output or by increasing the potential capability of machines. Efforts in either direction have produced only minimal results (Peretomode and Peretomode, 2005). According to the Peretomodes, advances in industrial engineering through automation and mechanization of industrial processes were welcomed relief for management, yet these advances alienated the employees and brought about greater dissatisfaction. Management problem today therefore appears very much human than mechanical (Henderson, 2000).
With this realization therefore, greater efforts towards increasing productivity have taken the human approach and hence the use of incentives. The use of incentives to motivate employees however, is by no means recent, but has acquired more popularity in recent times, while the parameters of incentive employed have widened to the use of money (economic incentive) the provision of amenities and fringe benefits (social incentives), involvement in decision making (participatory incentive), to the use of such factors as job security and promotion (psychological incentives) (Wikipedia, 2010).
The biggest task for motivation theorists as well as management today is the need to assess the relative effectiveness of these different forms of incentives. Several questions therefore are yet to be resolved relative to the relationship between incentives and productivity. Firstly, there is the need to establish clearly, if in fact incentives do influence productivity, and secondary, the nature of incentive and the type of incentive will enhance productivity.
The study therefore, addresses the impact of motivation on workers’ performance with the intent to ascertain the relationship between the presentation of motivational strategies and the subsequent level of performance.
However, the relationship between the organization and its members is governed by what motivates them to work and the fulfillment they derive from it. The manager needs to know how best to elicit the cooperation of staff, and direct their performance to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. The failure or success of any organization depends on whether or not these goals and objectives are achieved. An organization’s workforce plays significant role in the achievement of these organizational goals and objectives.
Employers of labour have however come to recognize the importance of employees’ welfare provisions, as incentives to motivate workers for better results, and achievement of the goals of the organization.
Motivation therefore, is concerned, basically, with why people behave in a certain way (Mullins, 2006). The basic underlying question is, “why do people do what they do?” In general terms, motivation can be described as the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behaviour (Nelson and Quick, 2001). It can also be defined as an inner state that energizes, activates, or moves (hence “motivation”), and that directs or channels behavior toward goals (Barelson and Steiner, 1964 as cited in Ogundele, 2005). In other words, motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desire, needs, wishes, and similar forces.
An organization must pay for services it gets and be sufficiently concerned about the workforce in order to achieve the set targets of the organization. It is thus the responsibility of an organization to ensure that conditions of employment are so arranged that the immediate needs of the employees are satisfied. Hence, the study examines the impact of motivation on workers’ performance, using the telecommunication industry (i.e. Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited).
1.2 significance of the Study
The following segment of this chapter elaborates on the importance of the study.
The result of this study should enhance greater efficiency and effectiveness in the productivity and management of organization. The importance of manpower productivity should also be ascertained through this study. Hence, it will also be of paramount relevance of setting up coordination, motivation and management of organizations.
This study will enhance adequate measurement to obtain high standard living of a country.
The study, will add to the existing body of knowledge on employees’ motivation and workers’ performance. This study will ginger organization, particularly the human resource manager, policy makers, business owners as well as employees on how to correct anomalies in the practice of employees’ motivation, compensation and its management.
The results of this study should assist in defining new methods for Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited in particular and telecommunication industry in general.
1.3 Statement of the Research Problem
Job dissatisfaction is known to be a problematic issue and it is rampant among the University graduates. It is also rampant among employees in organizations and with the single reason caused by money. More problematic, the University graduates of today or job seekers, and even managers do not care about whether the job duties are fulfilling rather, they care more about the size or the magnitude of incentives attached to the job.
More so, employees often complain that their salaries are stagnant, that others receive more pay or salaries than them, while they perform the same type of job. They usually accuse the management of gross favouritism and incompetence due to inequality or underpayment of employees which often lead to mass dissatisfaction and grievances.
However, the main purpose of every organization is profit maximization. All factors of production must be adequately channeled to attain a particular goal for an organization to achieve profit. Man stands out among all the factors of production because he is the one that puts all other factors e.g. land, capital etc to use. This notwithstanding, man still remains insatiable.
Motivation of man or an employee is achieved when his psychology is tuned to a positive disposition which can now lead him to perform in a particular way. The type of motivation a worker receives goes a long way to determine his dedication and efficiency in his work-place. Also, the levels of motivation and the motivating factors of employees vary from one employee to the other as well as from organization to organization.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The primary aim of this study is to examine the impact of motivation on workers’ performance in Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited. Other specific objectives are stated thus:
- i. To identify major cause of employee turnover in the organization.
- ii. To determine if employees’ motivational packages are parts of the factors that stimulates workers on the job.
- iii. To Establish relationship between good motivational packages and staff performance.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study would be on workers’ performance, using the concepts of motivation as effective technique in the telecommunication (i.e. Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited) industry.
It will also cover all aspects of productivity with particular emphasis on employees’ productivity. It examines the quality of the interaction between individuals and the organization.
The responsibility for improving the quality of individuals and the organization, as well as improving productivity in the telecommunication sector. Therefore, the study will use Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited as a case study.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
Synonymous with every research work, this project is limited to telecommunication industry. Specifically, it is limited to Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited alone.
1.7 Research Questions
- What are the causes of employees’ turnover in work organizations?
- What are the factors that stimulate potential employees to apply for jobs?
- Is there significance relationship between employees’ motivational package and staff performance?
1.8 Research Hypotheses
1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between employees’
turnover and organizational performance.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between employees’ turnover and organizational performance.
2. Ho: Stimulating potential employees does not improve performance in work organizations.
Hi: Stimulating potential employees improves performance in work organizations.
3. Ho: There is no significant relationship between employees’ motivational package and performance.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between employees’ motivational package and performance.
1.9 Brief History of Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited
Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited is located within Lagos Metropolis. Specifically, it is located at plot 1379A, Tiamiyu Savage Street, Victoria Island, Lagos. Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited started as the subscriber management arm of M-Net, the analogue Pay-TV channel. Today, it is the leading multichannel digital satellite television operator across the African continent. Its dynamic technology platform and varied bouquet of channels, built on a foundation of compelling premium entertainment, has seen Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited grow its business across South Africa.
We live in a world where information has become the key advantage. Today, information can travel anywhere, anytime, at great speed and in so many different ways – unlocking potential wherever it goes. At Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited, they constantly look for innovative ways and push boundaries to deliver information and content that is not only entertaining, but informative.
Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited provides its DSTV services to different market segments. The DSTV bouquets cater for different lifestyles and pockets, from entry level to Premium. Its premium service provides more than 89+3 HD video, 40 CD quality audio channels, 32 radio stations and 3 interactive services. DSTV is also available as a riche service for the Indian and Portuguese communities.
M-Net and Super Sport are part of the Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited stable, which delivers premium channels and content to a growing number of subscribers. Oracle, DSTV Mobile, NWEB, DSTV Online, CommerceZone, SmartVillage and NMSCom also form part of the group.
DSTV Mobile run trials on technologies aimed at playing a significant role in the transmission of the just concluded 2010 World Cup; namely mobile television. This mobile broadcast technology allows for the digital terrestrial broadcast of live television channels to a specially equipped mobile phone.
Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited is one of the outstanding examples of a pioneering South African company, owned by Naspers, an international player providing entertainment, technology and e-commerce services.
Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited’s involvement in South Africa goes beyond its core business. Through its corporate social investment, the company actively participates in social transformation and through technology, enables individuals and communities to help themselves ultimately leading to growth of the economy of the country.
Consequently, Multi-Choice Nigeria Limited’s potentials, its unique services and being an international organization which manage workforce diversity prompts the interest of this research work.
1.10 Operational Definition of Terms
Motivation: This is described as “those inner drives that activate or move an individual to action”. In essence, it is what spurs an individual towards a desired behaviour.
Motivation Systems: These are packages that are designed and intended to attract, retain and motivate employees. They do not just happen. Hence, certain conditions must exist for this to occur.
Performance: This is simply defined as the output resulting from a given resource input at a given time. Hence, a good definition of productivity must include three major elements output, resources committed, and time.
Management: It is referred to as the process whereby a body or set of people create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organization through co-ordinated, co-operative human effort.
Employee: This can be described as a person who is paid to work for somebody.