The Impact Of Over Population In The Socio-Economic Development In Nigeria
This project research work has been designed to carefully and critically investigate and examine “The impact of over population in the socio-economic development of Nigeria’’ using Osisioma Ngwa Local Government in Abia State (particularly, Aba town) as a case study, it also contains some other sub-topics such as the causes of over population, benefits of over population, solutions to the problems of over population and the need for population study in Nigeria among others found in five (5) different but highly related chapters. This research project will significantly serve as a bulk of references to the government of Nigeria, in the formulation of realizable, effective and sound socio-Economic Development plans and policies in the country, also to students and other researchers who would wish to obtain information in this domain of knowledge. The concept of the impact of over population in the socio-economic development of Nigeria is necessitated by the recognition of the urgent need to tackle the negative implication of over population as strong anti-socio-economic development factors in Nigeria and the findings of this research if carefully implemented, world achieve a tremendous relief to the situation at hand.
Over population is a very big threat to the socio-economic development of any given country most especially when the available resources is no where to carter for the needs and yearnings of the people coupled with bad leadership and governance or political instability as found in our country Nigeria. In the present day National Development pace, it is obvious to say that one of the biggest problems faced by any government of the country is the question of how to be able to extend its developmental projects and activities to all angles and entire members of the country, and their failure to do this, bring about negative influences and criticism to such a government or regime and also poses some constraints to the development of the country and yet the Nigeria’s population keeps increasing beyond the control of the government, as a result of these, Nigeria has been characterized with low standard of living, low quality of education, lack of social welfare packages, low per-capital income among others which are very harmful to the socio-economic development of the country and its reputation in the international communities.
1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Today, population has become one of the most controversial factors that are always given a special consideration in the socio-economic developmental plan of every country in the world. As many countries of the world may have different levels of population, our country Nigeria has been re-cognized world wide as one of the most populated countries of the world. But all the same, it is important to point out here that the level of the population of any country must have both negative and positive on the developmental level of such a country.
Population in Nigeria is always used in the allocation of seats and many other developmental benefits and consideration which has now made our population census to becomes a very strong political instrument used by various ethnic groups in achieving their political objectives.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE STUDY
The Nigeria’s over population has brought about many problems in the country which if not checked on time, may turn the country into a hell fire. The problems include:
1. The rate of the growth of the Nigeria’s population has made the members of the country to begin to wonder if it could ever be controlled again.
2. There is a high level of environment pollution in the country.
3. The standard of living and education is speedily decreasing while the cost of living is also increasing.
4. In the town where this project research is focused, people greatly suffer the problem of scarcity of residential housing accommodation.
5. There is now a high level of social vices in the country.
6. There is now a high level of outbreak of disease resulting from the congestion in our roads, houses etc.
7. The rate at which the population increase has strictly refused to respond positively to all the strategies applied by the government towards its control and management.
1.3OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The basic aim and objectives of this research project is mainly focused on the following areas:
1. To properly assess the rate at which the population of Nigeria increase.
2. To critically examine the effects of over population in the socio-economic development of Nigeria.
3. To observe the various causes of population growth (over population) in the country.
4. To asses the effort of the past and present government of the country in order to adopt and effectively manage over population of the country and its negative effects.
5. To provide measures and strategies for the control of over population in Nigeria.
6. To examine the benefits of over population in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research project is designed to answer the following questions:
1. Can Nigeria’s government alone be able to control the over population of Osisioma Ngwa Local Government?
2. What may likely be the suitable strategies for controlling those anti-developmental problems brought by over population?
3. Does the country have any special benefits over those under populated countries, then what are those essential and special benefits of over population to Nigeria?
4. What may likely be the negative and positive effects of over population in the socio-economic development of Nigeria?
5. What are those practices seen among the dwellers of the local government that brings about a rapid increase in the population of the country?
6. In what capacity can the government help to control the population of Osisioma Ngwa Local Government Area?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1. The findings of this research project will significantly be of a great benefit to the government of Nigeria during the formulation of policies regarding the socio-economic development plan of the country as well as population control.
2. The findings of the study will also serve as a study guide and a bulk of reference to other students and researcher who will wish to obtained information in this domain of knowledge.
3. This research project will also serve as a means of educating the Nigeria citizens on the negative effects of some decisions they take on the socio-economic development of the country.
4. This research project will be of great benefit to the government in identifying those causes of over population (rapid growth of population) in the county.
5. The findings of this research work will also bring about changes in peoples behaviour in the areas of family planning, polygamy etc.
1.6SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this project is to carefully assess the impact of over population in the socio-economic development of Nigeria with Osisioma Ngwa Local Government as a case study. This study will also cover Aba town and various categories of people who live in it who will provide us well information which would be used in making conclusion and recommendations on this work.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In a very large country like Nigeria and its large territory and population size, the researcher could not extend his research to all areas of the country rather it was limited to Osisioma Ngwa Local government area in Abia state as a result of the following reasons.
The money required for transportation into all the areas of the country and for searching every articles and information on the internet and libraries was too much to be provided by the researcher during the course of the research exercise.
2. POOR COMMUNICATION
Many people who the researcher tried to interview in that town were not from his tribe and they found it difficult to communicate with English and this led to lost of information.
3. LACK OF INTEREST BY PEOPLE
Many people were not interested while some others felt bias in responding to the questions, some claimed to be very busy and unable to give the necessary attention, and this led to lack of information.
4. TIME FRAME
The time given for the completion of this project work was not enough for a detailed research in a topic like this considering so many other things that needed similar if not equal attention such as term papers/report writing tests and even the examination.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The term population can be defined as the total number of people who reside in a particular area at a given period of time.
2. OVER POPULATION
Over population means in a situation where the population of a country is higher than the available resources.
3. OPTIMUM POPULATION
This is that type of population which is exactly equal to the available resources of the country.
4. UNDER POPULATION
This is a population which is less than the available resources of the country.
The term impact has to do with the rate of change which something has on another thing.
Development according to professor ollawa’s point of view (1981) is an all encompassing multi-dimensional process involving man in his political, economic, socio-cultural and psychological relations among others, in his effort to master and subjugate nature and natural forces of his environment to ensure improved living.
The term census means a process through which the total number of people living in a particular place is determine at a given period of time.
8. POLITICAL/CENSUS POPULATION
This is a type of population obtained from the conduction of census which is believed to has increased or reduced in other to meet the political objectives of one ethnic group or the other, especially during the allocation of political seats, resources or developmental package.
9. POPULATION GROWTH
This simple means the rate at which the population of a country increases from time to time with regards to their available resources.
10. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
In the words of Okoro, U.G and Kemjika, C.A (2006:9), social development means the total positive transformation of social norms, social institutions and social organisations of a society. It also involves access to qualitative education, cultural transformation, religious tolerance, healthy political process buttressed by mass political participation, political stability, respect for human rights, adherence to constitutionalism and respect for rule of law, ethnic tolerance and harmony.
On the other hand, Economic Development means improvement generally in the standard of living and improved quality of the living condition of the people of a particular society.