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The Impact Of Training And Development In A Marketing Company: A Case Study Of Coca Cola Multinational Company In Nigeria



  • Background of the study

To attract and retain the best people, company have to invest in their development. They need to take training and development very seriously.

Human resources are a crucial but expensive resource and therefore in order to sustain economic and effective performance of this resource, it is important to optimize their contribution to the achievement of the aims and objectives of the organization through training and development. Training is therefore necessary to ensure an adequate supply of employees that are technically and socially competent for both departmental and management positions. (Mullins, 2007). According to Heathfield (2012), the right employee training, development and education at the right time, provides big payoffs for the organization in increase productivity, knowledge, loyalty and contribution. Human resource management is today considered as a strategic partner of the other functional areas of business organization, namely; marketing, finance, production, purchasing, management information systems and administration. The human resource of any organization is that which is expected to bring about the competitive difference, since the success or failure of an organization is dependent on the quality of this resource as well as its orientation. This is based on the notion that human resource is the competitive advantage a business organization has. Training is a very important part of the human resource development (HRD) activity of human resource management practice. For employees to carry out their duties effectively and efficiently they must have the relevant skills, knowledge, values, attitudes and competencies and well as understand their organization’s culture. while on the job, employees need to be updated through training and development to acquire competencies they did not have at the time of appointment. This is why an organization might need training and development department, often referred to as Human Resource Development (HRD). When suitable job candidates have been selected and appointed, they must be given the appropriate orientation and in addition they must be trained and developed to meet their career needs of the organization.

Global competition has caused organizations to focus on every aspect of their operations, questioning how each function and process can contribute to strategic goals. Training departments are also under pressure to demonstrate their organizational value in the same terms Steed, (2000), this is because organizations spend a considerable time, effort and money in training their employees, but the benefits from these efforts are not clearly visible in organizations in terms of improved performance. To make training and development useful, it should be well planned and systematically implemented Rao and Nair, (1990). The capacity of staff in a firm influences the ability to achieve the desired targets particularly in performance driven enterprises. Human resource is recognized as a critical resource for success. In order to sustain performance of the organization, it is important to optimize the contribution of employees towards achievement of the aims and goals of an organization (Armstrong, 1999).

Training and development services help company develop a workforce with the knowledge and skills to meet their business objectives. A marketing program is essential to build awareness of the benefits of training and to maximize participation. However, a 2008 survey by training provider Expertus found that only 15 percent of internal training departments had a formal training plan, while 62 percent had no training budget (https://smallbusiness.chron.com).

Every business irrespective of its size needs to have definite goals in order to expand the business. These planned out goals will help the business sustain itself in the ever growing competitive market and also to increase its sales. Marketing strategy is nothing but the pavement to define your goals so that you can direct your efforts in the right direction. A well-defined strategy should not only help you to achieve your goals but also, help you to reach the customer’s goals and expectations from you. Marketing usually consists of some default points for its establishment. The most important of those being the organizational short-term and long-term goals. This is followed by analysis of the market the organization plans to establish its business into. For a service-based industry, targeting the relevant customers and expanding the client domain is of utmost importance. Also, making a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis of provided services or sold products will help the organization to analyze itself. A successful marketing strategy will create a win-win situation for both, customer and the organization. Needless to say, customer satisfaction will in turn increase the organization’s brand value and create an edge over the competitor. It helps in creating a realistic plan of approach which states the methods to achieve the stated goals. Once the strategy and plans are ready, the company can search for ways to implement the plans making the process highly efficient(http://www.iosrjournals.org)

Most of the successful business establishments make optimum use of marketing strategy for increased profits. Beverage industry forms a major part of total sales, both domestic and international, worldwide. With the continuous and dynamic demand of different beverages, having accurate marketing strategy is quite important for beverage industries. An example for such successful implementation of marketing strategy is Coca Cola.


1.1.1  History of Coca Cola Company

The Coca-Cola Company is an American multinational corporation, and manufacturer, retailer, and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. Coca Cola is one of the leading companies in soft drink and beverage industry. It contributes to the highest sales of soft drinks globally.

Coca Cola was established in 1886 by Dr. John S. Pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist, when he tried to create a distinctive syrup which can be sold at soda fountains. Initially, the syrup was mixed with carbonated water and then consumed. Frank M. Robinson, Dr. Pemberton’s partner and book keeper, termed the name „Coca Cola‟ thinking that the two „Cs‟ would sound well when advertised. He also designed the distinctive script in which the trademark is created, which is still used today. Prior to Dr. Pemberton’s death in 1888, Coca Cola was sold to various parties with the majority of interest sold to Atlanta businessman, Asa G. Chandler. Mr. Chandler is credited with founding the layout of the Coca Cola’s empire. Under his leadership, Coca Cola was sold in soda fountains outside Atlanta. In 1894, Joseph Biedenharn installed bottling machinery and became the first one to put Coca Cola in bottles. Coca Cola has succeeded to increase its sales to 1.9 billion servings per day. Today, approximately 94% of the world population is aware of the red & white logo of Coca Cola (http://www.iosrjournals.org). In 1951, the refreshing wave of Coca-Cola arrived in Nigeria and has remained a hit with consumers across the country.

Based on this background the researcher wants to investigate the impact of training and development in a marketing company. Using coca cola company as a case study.


  • Statement of the problem

Staff training and development is recognized as crucial element in the attainment of organizational goals and objectives. In order to sustain economic and effective performance, it is important to optimize the contribution of employees to the aims and goals of an organization Armstrong (1999). Training and development activities have implications for attempts to motivate and involve the workforce with an aim of improving performance. One of the primary objectives of human resource management is the creation of conditions whereby the latent potential of the employees will be realized and their commitment to the success of the organization secured. Training and development is therefore more or less unplanned and unsystematic. It looks like the majority of the employees are not trained (orientation) upon appointment.

In coca cola company, does training and development affect the performance of employees and the achievement of organizational goals and objectives? What must be the bases for the need for training and development? How is training and development needs determined? What must be done to ensure skills and competencies acquired from training transfers back to the job situation? What role would performance appraisal and job description play in the determination of training needs of employees?


  • Research objective

The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of training and development in a marketing company.

The specific objectives are:

  1. To investigate how effective the employee training and development is for the organization.
  2. To discuss the current practices in organizations for training and development that are supposed to contribute to the enhancement of the employees’ skills and employee performance
  3. To evaluate the views of management personnel on effective employee training and development program as enhancing the employee performance.
  4. To discuss the different training methods used by the organization
  5. To evaluate the different methods used by the organization in selecting the employees for training


  • Research question

The researcher was guided by the following specific questions

  1. What training and development techniques does Coca-Cola company give to its employees?
  2. What procedure is used for selecting employees for training and development programs?
  3. What is the impact of training and development on employees job performance in Coca-Cola company?
  4. How can employee training and development program be improved in Coca-Cola company ?
  5. What are some of the problems faced in implementing job training and development programs in Coca-Cola company?


1.5     Significance of the study

The study will be of use to management of coca cola company by encouraging them to embrace training and development to increase competitiveness, it will also help to establish how training has impacted on performance of employee and what improvements can be done to help equip the agents further as well motivated them to work better for better performance. The study will also serve as a reference to other researcher that will embark on the related topic


  • Scope and limitation of the study

The scope of the study covers the impact of training and development in a marketing company. The study will be limited to coca cola company in Lagos state. The researcher encounters some constraints which limit the scope of the study namely:

Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).


1.7     Definition of key terms

Training: This is any learning activity directed towards acquisition of specific skills, knowledge or attitude for the purposes of an occupation or a task

Development: This is the improvement of employee conceptual and human skills in preparation for future jobs

Performance: This is the level of individual’s work achievement that comes after only efforts has been exerted

Employees: These are the workers of an organization

Organization: This involves any structured group of people brought to achieve certain goals that the individuals could not reach alone


1.8     Organization of Study

This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research question, hypothesis, scope of the study and innovative aspect of the research. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


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