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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 

Motivational problem is a complex in management because individuals have different attitudes and goals so also there are varied organisational objectives. To this end what motivate one person may not motivate another and even what motivate an employee today may not motivate him or her tomorrow. Hence motivational problems are the most difficult tasks that an organisation or a manager will have to cope with for a long time.

By implication, motivation starts with unsatisfied needs a individuals and tends to influence and shape the attainment a organisational goals and objectives. However, unsatisfied needs produce tension and stimulate varied forms of behaviour in individuals. Accordingly, psychologist agreed that all behaviours are motivated and the people have reason for doing things they do for behaving manner. The various forms of behaviour and attitudinal disposition which organization require of the employee in order to achieved set goals depend on the kind of rewards or incentive packaged for the employees. These, usually vary from one organization to another and they include the job security, good salary/wages, medical health facilities, incentives schemes and effective physical working conditions among others.

Basically these aforementioned motivational factors may have positive or negative influence or impact on the performance a staff and hence, have a tendency of motivating employees to perform optionally. At the end, it could result in better performance job satisfaction increase output and efficiency in the organization. According to Olowo (2004.16) in order for motivation of employees to bring about the expected out come the first step must be building effective reward practices so that rewards provided are those which are widely desired.

1.2       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CADBURY INDUSTRIES NIGERIA PLC

The Cadbury Industries Plc came into existence in 1956. It was formerly, located at Apapa before it later moved to its present location at Ikeja. As a reputable company, it was noted for its strong belief in the ability of its human resources to harness and combine other factors of production over the years.

As a matter of fact, it has spent much fund in its motivational productivity package which include the:

(a)          Remuneration: Salary scale and wage rate are those of the highest priority in the company’s reward system.

(b)         Monthly scales of packs: The employees both junior and senior staff of the organisation are given the opportunity to buy their products at subsidized price every month.

(c)          Christmas Bonus: A percentage of workers salary is paid to each worker at the end of the year as a mean of sharing profit.

(d)         Promotion and salary increase: Promotion and salary increase are done at the end of every year based on some established criteria.

Therefore, the organisation is noted for its wide range of products which include Bourvita, Dairy chocolate, Richoco, Eclaris, Tom-Tom, etc. which are on different production line. The company also engages in the wholesales distribution of goods and general merchandise. Hence, the organisation is recognized today as one of the pillars of the Nigeria economy whose motivational efforts on its employees. Vis-à-vis the impacts on the organisational productivity demand in depth analysis.

1.3       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Since human behaviour is unpredictable, then it is pretty difficult to determine the behaviour response of a staff towards a particular motivational factor. Perhaps, some employees, especially the senior may place more value on opportunity for social advancement, others, particularly the junior employees may proper more wages and salaries or job security than other things.

Therefore, the problem of this study is to determined the problems of employees motivational factors to organisational development for instance, strong motives such as pleasures in success fear of failures desire to be organisation may hinder the attainment of organisational goals most importantly excessive low personal work standards, lack of job security and poor locestives make goals – setting and achievement as well as general development very difficult in an organisation.

Hence, organisational growth and development is a function of an effective and efficient management which knows the relevant of employee, motivation towards the organisational goals our concern here is to determine the impacts a employees motivation on Cadbury Nigeria Plc.

1.4       PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to identify and determine the effectiveness of motivational factors existing in Cadbury Industries Nigeria Plc.

Also, it is of interest to find out the impacts of employee’s motivation on Cadbury Nigeria Plc and to make some recommendations based on the findings of the study.

1.5       RESEARCH QUESTIONS 

This study shall be guided by the following research questions.

(1)         What are motivational factors in Cadbury Industries Nigeria Plc.

(2)         What are the requirements of a good system of motivation?

(3)         Does effective motivational schemes lead to high level of product organisational productivity?

1.6       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

(1)         There is no significant relationship between existing motivational factors in Cadbury Nigeria Plc and the satisfaction and performance of employees.

(2)         There is no significant relationship between goods management and effective motivational schemes.

(3)         There is no significant relationship between employee’s motivation and organisational productivity.

1.7       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is significant in many respects firstly, the findings will help organisationals to know how best to reward their hand working employees.

Secondly, it will identify and determine various motivational factors in relation to the performance of employees.

Thirdly, it will also ascertain the effectiveness of existing motivational scheme in Cadbury Nigeria Plc. and its impacts.

Lastly, it could complement the existing literatures on the study and in the field of administration.

1.8    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study is the impact of employees motivation on organisation. A case study of Cadbury Industries Nigeria Plc.

1.9    LIMITATION TO THE STUDY               

Several  limitations are expected to be faced on the course of carrying out this research work. This ranges from lack of accessibility of informations to the predictability of human behaviours.

1.10    DEFINITION OF TERMS 

Motivational Factors

These are factors that cause, channel and sustain people’s behaviour. Stoner and Freeman (1989) defined motivational factors to be concerned with why managers motivate their subordinates.

Productivity       

This is the ratio of what is produced to what is required for its production. Cambell (2002) defined productivity as average total output of a production system divided by the total labour and other factors of production.

Performances

This is the act of carrying out a predetermined functions or duties successfully performance as it will be used in this study will mean the performance of labour input measured by the rate of change in labour productivity over a given time.

Reward              

Nwamanam (1991) defined reward as a work outcome of positive value.

REFERENCES

Cambell, O.O. (2002): Educational Planning Managerial and Organisation Lagos, Babs Publishers.

Olowo A.O. (2004): Introduction to organisation Management. Ibadan: University Press.

Ouuamanam D.O. (1991): Introduction to sociology and psychology of Education, Lagos: Abin a Lithographic Company.

Stoner A and Freeman J.B. (1989): Introduction Organisational Management, London: Brummer Press.

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