The Logical Framework As An Important Planning Tool: A Caritas Nigeria Approach To Aid Humanitarian Delivery In North East Nigeria
Background to the Study
The prolonged conflict perpetuated by Boko Haram group in northeast Nigeria has spurred massive displacement and undermined food security. Though, efforts have been made by the Federal Government of Nigeria to curbing the increasing state of insecurity in the region since 2009 when the group emerged but with progress made so far, the Federal Government of Nigeria requested for international support to combat the Boko Haram group in the affected states in the area of military hard ware and other humanitarian assistance
“Internal displacement is one of the greatest tragedies of our time and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) are among the most vulnerable of the human family” (United Nations [UN] Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs [OCHA], 2004, p. 1). This is because the intensity of internal displacement, arising from different factors, which include violent conflicts, man-made and natural disasters, has become a global problem. In fact, in the past few years, reports of internal displacement have increased around the world, bringing about a change from large-scale refugee flows to amplified internal displacement. The internal displacement of civilians and their need for human rights protections remain one of the vital human rights concerns of the post–Cold War era (Kalin, 2010). This is because the end of the Cold War marked a historical shift in the nature of warfare as well as the form of displacement hitherto witnessed. Warfare metamorphosed into a form in which combatants do not necessarily have to be state actors. It is disturbing that most combatants are unknown substate actors waging war against the state. Notwithstanding, armed conflicts today are targeted against civilians.
Evidences from the post–Cold War era show that most intrastate conflicts occurred in Africa and Nigeria have contributed immensely to the global displacement figure. Internal displacement in Nigeria has been driven over the past few decades by coups, internal armed conflicts, generalized violence, human rights violations, and natural hazards (International Committee of the Red Cross, 2009). Currently, the insurgency by Boko Haram has been the major cause of displacement after the Nigerian Civil War of 1967 to 1970. The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2002 but gained momentum in 2009 when the leader of the sect, Mohammed Yusuf, was killed while in police custody (Imasuen, 2015). The flight of surviving members of the sect into neighboring African states through Nigeria’s porous borders exposed them to trainings in improvised explosive devices (IEDs) more funding, as well as linkages with mercenaries. With these, the sect now gained a more terrifying outlook in terms of the use of sophisticated weaponry, deadliness of attacks, and the change of targets from national security forces and overrunning of state properties to civilian targets (Caux, 2013). To this end, the Boko Haram sect became identified with the use of extreme violence to instill fear into the general Nigerian population, especially in Northeast Nigeria, bringing about the displacement of about 3.3 million people (Adekola, Azuh, Amoo, & Brownell, 2019; National Emergency Management Agency [NEMA], 2015; Olanrewaju, 2018; Olanrewaju, Omotoso, & Alabi, 2018a)
Holistically, the flight destinations of IDPs both within and outside the country are to host communities, IDPs’ camps, and safer neighboring countries outside the country of displacement. Thus, as violence by the sect intensified, human rights violations increased, civilians were forced to flee to other areas in search of security both outside Nigeria as refugees and within safer communities and camps in Nigeria as IDPs (NEMA, 2015). Caux (2013) observes that most IDPs live within communities, whereas the displaced persons who flee to safer countries to take refuge there are called refugees. Refugees, according to the Organization of African Unity Convention also known as the Kampala Convention of 1969, are persons who owing to external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country of origin or nationality, is compelled to leave his place of habitual residence in order to seek refuge in another place outside his country of origin or nationality. (Organisation of African Unity, 1969) However, the 1998 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement defined IDPs as persons or groups of persons who have been forced, obliged to flee, to leave their homes or places of habitual residence; in particular, as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized state border. (United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs [UN OCHA], 2004) These definitions show that there are some similarities between IDPs and refugees. Adhikari and Joshi (2008), Deng (2004), and Lee (1997) argue that internal displacement and refugee crisis are similar problems with related causes and needs. IDPs are somewhat like the refugees fleeing from an unsafe place to a new destination within the state where the flight is taking place. They are uprooted from their homes and seek shelter and safety elsewhere. Both categories of persons are forced to flee from their homes for the same reason, which is the fear for their lives. Their vulnerable positions make them categories of concern. However, the works of Muggah (2014) and Adhikari and Joshi (2008) also provide another distinction between the two groups of persons, which is whether the migrant crosses an international border or not. Refugees are displaced outside the boundaries of their country. That is, they leave their homes and cross international borders. On the contrary, IDPs are those displaced within territorial borders of the place of residence.
Caritas Nigeria -also known as Catholic Caritas Foundation of Nigeria (CCFN)- is the official relief and development arm of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of Nigeria. Since its formal registration in 2010, it has successfully implemented several development interventions supported by diverse stakeholders ranging from governments, United Nations agencies, Caritas Confederation members, philanthropists, international aid agencies, and other faith-based organisations. In line with its vision of “a harmonious environment where everyone enjoys fullness of life”, Caritas Nigeria beneficiaries are selected based on need, regardless of religion, ethnicity or political affiliations.
Since its formal registration, Caritas Nigeria has reached millions of direct beneficiaries from interventions on its priority areas, such as Emergency Response & Humanitarian Services (reaching internally displaced persons and refugees); Health & HIV/AIDS interventions –including support to orphans and vulnerable children; Agriculture & Livelihoods support to vulnerable households (Food Security); Good Governance programs – on election observations, budget monitoring and citizens’ education; Institutional Capacity Strengthening; Anti-Human Trafficking and Forced Migration – including services to returnees; widows, unemployed youths, amongst others in hard-to-reach communities across Nigeria and overseas in solidarity and Institutional Development & Capacity Strengthening (ICS).
With regard to capacity building, Caritas Nigeria is the only organisation successfully offering the APMG accredited PMD-Pro training & certification in Nigeria and indeed West Africa. So far, the Caritas Nigeria Institutional Capacity Strengthening programme has assiduously trained and built capacities of thousands of health facility staff in rural communities, local partners in dioceses and over 500 development professionals in the country. Moreover, Caritas Nigeria is currently developing the National Data Repository (NDR) that supports the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) with an archive of the performance of every health facility providing HIV services in the country.
Caritas Nigeria’s country offices are in Abuja with two regional offices in Makurdi (Benue State) and Sokoto State and sub-offices in Lagos, Edo and Kebbi States. Nonetheless, there are also 56 local (diocesan) JDP/Caritas offices spread across the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria, making it easier for Caritas Nigeria to reach those most in need in hard-to-reach and underserved communities.
Statement of the Research Problem
The humanitarian community has provided life-saving assistance to millions of affected people since 2016 when the international response to the crisis scaled-up significantly following warnings of looming famine. Assistance and protection interventions have primarily been targeted at individuals and communities who have been directly affected by the ongoing conflict, including vulnerable people affected by chronic under development and who lack access to basic services. Humanitarian assistance has saved lives, but the underlying vulnerabilities and root causes to the crisis have not been addressed. Recognising that north-east Nigeria is now a complex and protracted crisis with both acute and chronic needs, a more strategic approach and holistic response is required. As a result, there is a need to shift to a multi-year Humanitarian Response Strategy, which provides the framework for planning and coordinating the delivery of humanitarian assistance that can also catalyze early recovery and long-term development. The multi-year strategy facilitates increased engagement with development partners to address underlying structural drivers of the crisis, all in support of the recognized capacity of the Government of Nigeria to own and lead the response. The multi-year approach also speaks to some of the contextual peculiarities of north-east Nigeria including high levels of inaccessibility, the nature of displacement and lack of safe transit on major road axes. Humanitarian programming will make a concrete and measurable contribution, beyond the humanitarian response, to sustainable development in northeast Nigeria in line with the agreed collective outcomes.
Objectives of the Study
The main thrust of this study is to investigate the Logical Framework As An Important Planning Tool: A Caritas Nigeria Approach To Aid Humanitarian Delivery In North East Nigeria.
In order to achieve the purpose, this research will be guided by the following main and specific objectives;
- To examine the relationship between Caritas and Humanitarian delivery among rural dwellers
- To analyze communication approaches deployed By Caritas Nigeria
- To assess the viability of A Caritas in humanitarian aid in North East Nigeria
- To examine Caritas management practice of humanitarian aid in North East Nigeria.
- To examine the problems facing humanitarian aid practices in Nigeria and proffers a workable measures
Significance of the Study
This study will be useful to several stakeholders including the management of the Caritas Nigeria, Government of Nigeria through the NGO coordination bureau, future researchers and academicians. This will add to the small existing body of literature on the subject.
To the project managers and NGOs this study will in maximization of strengths of humanitarian approach. In addition, both the nongovernmental organizations as well as project management practitioners will benefit from the study as it will contribute to body of knowledge. It is important for the project practitioners‟ to understand the dynamics approach to Aid humanitarian delivery.
This study will particularly help Caritas staff, donor agencies and project managers in a better understanding of humanitarian aid delivery and how to improve to meet the expectations of the stakeholders, as well as provide valuable information for future interventions.
In terms of policy, this research will contribute knowledge that humanitarian agencies can use to improve the effective management of humanitarian aid through identification of lessons learnt to improve the quality of humanitarian services in conflict affected environments.
Scope of the Study
The thesis is on The logical framework as an important planning tool: A Caritas Nigeria approach to Aid humanitarian delivery in North East Nigeria. This study were conducted within the framework of Caritas Foundation of Nigeria.
Operational Definition of Terms
Assessment refers to the process of making judgment or forming an opinion, after considering something or someone carefully.
Monitoring refers to the continuous tracking of project by way of collecting and analyzing data as the project progresses. It is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information to track the efficiency of an organization in achieving its goals.
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