THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION IN MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING
THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION
IN MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING
(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE)
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (TECHNICAL) ENUGU
The recent modernization and automation of Nigerian factories have created a demand for increased use of according information in Management decision making. To make meaningful economic decisions which relate to personnel, purchasing, production and marketing, Managers of various companies and Institutions have to rely on the use of quantitative characteristics of accounting Information which Include:- relevance, timeliness, reliability, representational, faithfulness, completeness, verifiability, neutrality, quantifyability, conciseness, among others. This research work has therefore looked into the effectiveness of the use of Accounting Information in Management decision making and planning with respect to the Enugu State College of Education (Technical) Enugu (ESCET). In the course of this research, it was found that the Enugu State College of Education (Technical) makes use of accounting Information in management decision making.The Institute makes use of Accounting Information in making meaningful economics decision on personnel, purchasing, and fees to be paid by their students but the extent to which they make use of such Information especially on school fees vary. The extent to which they depend on such Information has been found to be Influenced by the following factors:-
(a) The limited nature of formal Information System in providing external Information be tending to Ignore non-quantitative and non-economic information.
(b) The late arrival of the formal Information to be used.
(c) The power structure and political situation within the college or Organization which may cause the manager to Ignore or distort the Information.
(d) Cognitive Limitation of the manager &
(e) Recruitment of Unqualified Accounting Personnel.
There is a positive relationship between the efficient use of accounting Information and the quality of decision taken in the Enugu State College of Education (Technical) and the efficient use of the Information Contributes positively to the Institutes performance; thus, the decisions and planning of the management can not be efficient without accounting Information. This work also suggests different criteria for the improvement of formal (accounting) Information Systems. This research work has been structured into five chapters viz:- Chapter One discussed the Back ground of the study, Problems associated with the study, the Objectives, Hypothesis testing, the significance of the study, its scope as well as limitations and delimitation. Chapter Two reviewed the related literature in the areas of accounting information. Such areas includes: Types of Accounting Information, Characteristics of accounting Information or Report, Decision – making using accounting information, short-term and long-term decisions, levels of Information in decision making, effective decision making, Application of accounting Information in managerial decisions and financial ratio analysis. Chapter three took a look at the Research Methodology used. Chapter four dealts with data analysis and testing of Hypothesis. Chapter five provided the findings and recommendations on how to improve upon the use of accounting Information with a corresponding epilogue.
With gratitude, we acknowledge our supervisor and our H.O.D Mr G.N.O Eneh for his direction and guidance on how to carryout this research work, Sir we are grateful we also acknowledge the effort of our able Lecturers who impact a lot of knowledge on us that help us in carrying out this project work, to mention but Few. Mr E.A. Ejili, Mrs Mama L. Mr J. Onah and Mr Chidi Ozochi.
Finally, we acknowledge our parents whom we always run to for financial help through out the time of this research study.
From the debt of our mine, we say may God bless all of you who contributed in one way or the other to make this work successful.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Approval Page – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – v
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – vi
Table of Content – – – – – – – vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
0.1 Background of the Study- – – – – 1
1.1 Significance of the Study- – – – – 4
1.2 Statement of the Problems – – – – 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – 6
1.4 Research Questions- – – – – – 7
1.5 Hypothesis – – – – – – – 8
1.6 Delimitation of the Study- – – – – 9
1.7 Limitation of the Study – – – – – 10
1.8 Definition of Relevant Terms – – – – 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE
2.0 Literature Review – – – – – – 16
2.1 Types of Accounting Information/Report – – 16
2.2 Characteristics of Accounting Information – 19
2.3 Decision Making & Accounting Information- – 20
2.4 Short-Tearms and Long-Tearms Decision
Making – – – – – – – – 22
2.5 Levels of Information in Decision
Making – – – – – – – – 23
2.6 Effective Decision Making- – – – – 24
2.7 Application of Accounting information
in Managerial Decision – – – – – 25
2.8 Financial Ratio Analysis – – – – – 26
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
3.0 Research Methodology – – – – – 29
3.1 Sources of Data – – – – – – 29
3.2 Sample Size – – – – – – – 30
3.3 Statistical Method for Data Analysis – – – 31
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DAA
4.0 Data Analysis and Testing of
Hypothesis – – – – – – – 34
4.1 Data Presentation – – – – – – 35
4.2 Contingency Table – – – – – – 35
4.3 Hypothesis – – – – – – – 36
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY
5.0 Findings – – – – – – – – 38
5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – 41
5.2 Recommendations – – – – – – 43
5.3 Suggestions for Further Research Study – – 45
References – – – – – – – 46
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Institution is a community of people. It is also individuals efforts working together in pursuit of common purposes called “Organizational goal”.
Organization is any group of two or more persons working together to achieve a goal or goals. (Ricky Gtiffin, 1984. PP4-55). The goals may be that of profit motive for business organization; Spreading of knowledge for Colleges and Universities; National defence by the Army; Social Satisfaction by social chibs; etc. there is need for combination and Utilization of money, men and materials resources for the attainment of Organizational goals that led the Organization into division of labour.
In broad terms, there are two types of organizations
(i) The profit Motive Organization (Business Organization)
(ii) The non-profit Motive Service Venture.
The primary aim of the former is to make profit on Investment while the objective of the latter is determined by the Social and Political Considerations such as meeting the needs of people in the area of basic health-care, providing quality education, etc. Such group Include:- all Governmental Agencies, the United Nations Organization, World Health Organization (WHO) etc.
Basically, Information is to data what a finished Product is to the raw-materials used in producing it.
According to Anthony and Reick (2003; P 270), Information is a fact, datum, observation, perception or any other thing that adds to knowledge. Data in their states are only relevant as historical records which can be filed away because there is no immediate need but once there is a need to use them for management purpose, they are received, organized and packaged in such a format that will help management in their function of planning, forecasting or control.
Information can be external or Internal to a business Organization or an establishment and, how it is finally put to use depend on the nature of the organization.
External Information will Include:- All the Information gathered from sources outside of the immediate environment of the organization, such as International journal, Government gazettes; Statistical journal; world raw-materials reports; etc.
While those Internal Information Include those from different branches or sections of the organization such as: personnel unit, production unit, etc which could reflect the company’s account, stock records department performance analysis etc.
In Management, Information is most often related to the purpose for which its is needed.
This implies that there is a factor of relevance in information need and utilization with in any Business Organization or Institution.
The types of Information required by a one section of the organization may not be the same that another section of the organization requires to carry out its functions
Information can either be quantitative or non-quantitative. Accounting Information is mostly quantitative in nature and it is usually expressed in financial or monetary terms, as well as accompanied with non-monetary Information Management of the Institution etc
1.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study has been designed for Nigerian Organizations of either the profit motive Organization or service oriented organization (Non-Profit motive) such as the Enugu State College of Education (Technical).
Meanwhile, the significance of this study Include:-
(a) Whether accounting Information plays an important role in the efficient running of an organization through the keeping of proper records.
(b) The study of accounting Information throws more light on its efficiency in the development of modern organization.
(c) Since modern business may be owned by literally hundreds of share holders, the study of accounting Information X- rays the extent to which the share holders and Administrators may depend on Financial reports of companies or organizations.
(d) Through this work, one should be able to communicate the economic measures of, and the Information about the resources and performances of the reporting entity to those who have reasonable right to such information.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Capital generated by Organizations reflect the ability of the Management of such Organization to successfully control all the factors necessary for the production and provision of goods and services,
As a result of the state of economy and the policies Instituted by government, Managers tend to look for a venue to Increase quality at lower cost?
(a) There is also the problem of stating an answer to this question of, “to what extent dose accounting Information help the managers in allocating scarce resources properly?
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study, Include:-
(a) To ascertain whether there is any positive relationship between the efficient use of accounting Information and quality of decision taken by the College Management.
(b) To ascertain whether the use of accounting Information efficiently contribute positively to the performance of the College under study.
(c) To find out whether the College Managements planning, decisions and control can be efficient with the effective use of accounting Information.
(d) To determine the factors that impede or promote the effective use of accounting Information.
(e) To ascertain whether the use of accounting Information aids in assessing cash flow prospects in the College.
(f) To give suggestions on how to improve on the role of accounting Information in management decision making and planning for better promotion.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions have been designed by the researchers in the course of this study.
(a) What are the factors that can negatively affect the use of accounting Information in an organization?
(b) Is there any clear distinction between the decisions made through the use of accounting Information and those based on Non-accounting information?
(c) How positive in relation to the College” performance is the efficient use of accounting Information?
(d) To what extent does the efficient use of accounting Information determine the quality of decisions taked by the College management?
(e) Do you consider accounting Information more useful than the Non-accounting Information?
For the purpose of this research work, the following hypothesis have been stated which should be tested in the course of this research.
(a) Null Hypothesis (Ho):- There is no positive relationship between the efficient use of accounting Information and the quality of decisions taken in the College “Enugu State College of Education (Technical)
Alternative Hypothesis (Hi):- There is a positive relation between the efficient use of accounting Information and the quality of decisions taken in the College: “Enugu State College of Education (Technical) (ESCET)”
(b) Null Hypothesis (Ho):- The use of efficient accounting Information in the Enugu State College of Education (Technical) (ESCET) does not Contribute positively to the performance of the College.
Alternative Hypothesis (Hi):- The use of efficient accounting Information in Enugu State College of Education (Technical) (ESCET) Contribute positively to the performance of the College.
(c) Null Hypothesis (HO) The College Management decision-making and planning can be efficient with out the use of accounting Information.
Alternative Hypothesis (Hi) The College Management decision and planning can not be efficient without accounting Information.
1.6 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research, in general term, is geared towards the studying of the main components of the role of accounting Information in Management decision making with special reference to the Enugu State College of Education (Technical) (ESCET). Although, the researchers are students of the College in question, they tried to know how accounting Information had been effectively and efficiently used by the Administrators and Staff of the College and then relate it to other Organizations.
However, in the course of the study, the researchers still encounter some limitations.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
One of the limitation of this study is the inability of the Management to disclose certain Information which they consider very sensitive to the researchers such that its publication might be detrimental to the College’s operations or tantamount to “street Management”.
Infact secondary data, as well as the varied opinions of experts are many but could not be exhaustively reached owning to limited time frame for this work.
The unavailability of such materials and insufficient financial resources are also limitation factors in the study.
1.8 DEFINITIONS OF RELEVANT TERMS:-
The relevant terms that are to be encountered in the courses of this work include:-
(a) Accounting:- The early definitions of accounting generally focused on the traditional record keeping functions of an Accountant. In 1941, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) defined accounting as “the art of recording, classifying and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of measures, processes, and communicates financial Information about an identifiable economic entity.
This Information allows users to make “reasoned choices among alternative uses of scares resources in the conduct of business and economic activities.
Figure 11 below depicts accounting as a service activity. It serves as a link between business activities and decision makers. Here, one might say that data about business activities are the input to the accounting system and useful Information for decision markers becomes in output.
Adopted from B.E Needles et al, P3
b. Accounting and its Relationship with Book-keeping, the computer and management Information system:-[email protected][email protected]