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The Role of Monetary Policy on Inflation in Nigeria


This study employed a correlational research design to investigate the complex relationships between macroeconomic variables and inflation in Nigeria during the period from 2010 to 2022. Data for the study were collected from published secondary sources, encompassing a wide range of macroeconomic indicators. Utilizing SPSS27, the collected data were meticulously presented and analyzed, employing various statistical techniques to derive meaningful insights. The hypotheses formulated for the study were tested using ANOVA estimates, offering a robust statistical foundation for the examination of key relationships. Findings from the analysis provided nuanced insights into the impact of interest rates, exchange rates, and unemployment rates on inflation in the Nigerian economic context. While the study acknowledged the non-significant results in certain instances, the detailed discussions shed light on the intricacies of these relationships, contributing to a more refined understanding of inflation determinants. The correlational research design allowed for the identification of patterns and trends in the data, uncovering the complex interplay between macroeconomic variables. Through the adoption of SPSS27, the study ensured a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the collected data, enhancing the reliability and validity of the findings. The use of ANOVA estimates further strengthened the study’s statistical rigour, providing a robust framework for hypothesis testing and validation. In conclusion, the study presented a comprehensive exploration of the economic landscape of Nigeria, emphasizing the relationships between macroeconomic variables and inflation. The findings, while acknowledging non-significant results in some instances, contribute significantly to the existing body of knowledge. The recommendations derived from the study offer actionable insights for policymakers, providing a basis for future economic strategies. This research contributes methodologically by demonstrating the application of a correlational research design and ANOVA estimates in the examination of inflation determinants, setting a precedent for similar studies in diverse economic contexts.




Background to the Study

The economic landscape of Nigeria has been characterized by fluctuations in inflation rates over the years, emphasizing the crucial role of monetary policy in shaping the nation’s financial stability (Ogbuagu & Ewubare, 2020). Monetary policy, which involves the use of tools such as interest rates, exchange rates, and cash ratios, plays a pivotal role in influencing inflationary trends. The intricate relationship between these monetary policy instruments and inflation dynamics requires careful examination to understand their impact on the Nigerian economy.

Interest rates are fundamental components of monetary policy and have a significant influence on inflation. The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) often adjusts interest rates as a measure to control inflationary pressures (Gbadebo & Mohammed, 2021). By manipulating interest rates, the CBN aims to regulate the money supply, affecting consumer spending and investment. The transmission mechanism of monetary policy through interest rates involves changes in borrowing costs, which can impact spending patterns and, consequently, inflationary pressures. For instance, when interest rates are high, borrowing becomes more expensive, leading to reduced spending and investment, thus curbing inflation (Ogundipe & Alege, 2021).

Exchange rates also play a crucial role in the inflationary dynamics of Nigeria. The country’s dependence on imports for various goods and services makes exchange rate movements highly significant. Changes in exchange rates can affect the prices of imported goods, influencing overall inflation levels. A depreciating local currency can lead to higher import costs, contributing to cost-push inflation. On the other hand, an appreciating currency may have the opposite effect. Bayramoglu and Allen (2019) highlight the importance of understanding inflation dynamics and monetary transmission mechanisms in the context of inflation-targeting regimes, emphasizing the need for a comprehensive analysis of exchange rate effects on inflation.

Cash ratios, another tool within the monetary policy framework, involve the percentage of deposits that banks are required to hold as reserves. Adjusting these ratios can influence the amount of money circulating in the economy. The Central Bank of Nigeria often employs cash reserve requirements to control liquidity and inflation (Onwachukwu, 2020). By altering the cash reserve ratio, the central bank can regulate the money supply, impacting inflationary pressures. A higher cash reserve requirement reduces the amount of money banks can lend, constraining spending and curbing inflationary pressures (Demchuk & Łyziak, 2022).

In examining the different dimensions of inflation, it is essential to consider the factors contributing to demand-pull inflation. Ajisafe and Folorunso (1999) emphasize the relative effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policies in macroeconomic management in Nigeria. Demand-pull inflation occurs when aggregate demand surpasses aggregate supply, leading to an increase in overall price levels. The effectiveness of monetary policy instruments, such as interest rates and cash reserve requirements, in managing demand-pull inflation is crucial. For example, if the CBN adjusts interest rates to make borrowing more expensive, it can dampen consumer spending and investment, addressing the excess demand that contributes to inflation (Emerenini & Eke, 2022).

Fiscal policy, the government’s use of taxation and public expenditure, also plays a role in demand-pull inflation. Adefeso and Mobolaji (2020) provide further empirical evidence on the interplay between fiscal-monetary policy and economic growth in Nigeria. Government spending can stimulate demand, potentially contributing to inflationary pressures. In such cases, a coordinated approach between fiscal and monetary authorities is essential to achieve macroeconomic stability.

Cost-push inflation, another dimension of inflation, is influenced by factors such as changes in production costs and supply shocks. In Nigeria, factors such as fluctuations in oil prices can contribute to cost-push inflation. Understanding the impact of monetary policy on mitigating these factors is vital for economic stability. Simwaka et al. (2022) conducted an econometric investigation into the relationship between money supply and inflation in Malawi, highlighting the importance of comprehensively understanding the dynamics of these variables.

Additionally, the impact of inflation on economic growth is a critical aspect of economic management. Okoroafor, Adeniji, and Olasehinde (2018) utilized threshold analysis to estimate and forecast the impact of inflation on economic growth in Nigeria. High and unpredictable inflation rates can hinder economic growth by eroding the purchasing power of consumers, reducing investment, and creating uncertainty in the business environment.

In conclusion, the economic landscape of Nigeria is intricately connected to the fluctuations in inflation rates, and monetary policy stands out as a key driver in shaping the nation’s financial stability. Interest rates, exchange rates, and cash ratios are powerful tools that the Central Bank of Nigeria employs to influence inflationary trends. The dynamic relationship between these monetary policy instruments and inflation requires careful consideration and analysis to effectively manage economic stability. The effectiveness of these tools in addressing demand-pull and cost-push inflation, as well as their impact on economic growth, underscores the importance of a holistic approach to economic management. As Nigeria continues to navigate its economic challenges, a nuanced understanding of the interplay between

 Statement of Problem

Nigeria has faced persistent challenges with inflation, exerting considerable influence on diverse sectors of its economy. The oscillations in inflation rates pose a threat to economic stability, creating a ripple effect that impacts businesses, consumers, and the overall dynamics of the market. To address and understand the root causes of inflation in Nigeria, a thorough examination of the intricate relationship between monetary policy variables and inflation is imperative.

The interplay between monetary policy variables, namely interest rates, exchange rates, and cash ratios, holds the key to deciphering the complex factors that contribute to inflation in Nigeria (Ogbuagu & Ewubare, 2020). These variables are pivotal tools employed by the Central Bank of Nigeria to regulate the nation’s monetary environment. Interest rates, for instance, influence borrowing costs, thereby affecting spending patterns and investment, which are critical components in the inflationary dynamics (Gbadebo & Mohammed, 2021). The exchange rate, being a crucial determinant in a country heavily reliant on imports, can significantly impact the prices of imported goods, consequently influencing overall inflation levels (Bayramoglu & Allen, 2019). Additionally, cash ratios, representing the percentage of deposits that banks must hold as reserves, play a crucial role in regulating the money supply and, consequently, inflation (Onwachukwu, 2020).

By comprehensively analyzing these monetary policy variables, policymakers can gain insights into the contributing factors of inflation in Nigeria. This understanding is paramount for devising effective strategies to mitigate the adverse effects of inflation on the economy. As Nigeria strives to achieve economic stability amidst inflationary challenges, a nuanced examination of the interconnections between these monetary policy tools and inflation will be instrumental in formulating targeted and impactful policy measures.

 Objectives of the Study

The study sought to achieve the following three specific objectives:

  1. Investigate the impact of interest rates on inflation in Nigeria.
  2. Assess the relationship between exchange rates and inflation in the Nigerian economic context.
  3. Analyze the influence of the unemployment rate on inflation in Nigeria.

 Research Questions

To guide the exploration, the study addressed the following research questions:

  1. How have changes in interest rates influenced inflation in Nigeria?
  2. What is the nature of the relationship between exchange rates and inflation in Nigeria?
  3. In what ways do variations in the unemployment rate impact inflation in Nigeria?

Research Hypotheses

The study formulated the following hypotheses for testing:

Null Hypotheses(H0):

  1. There is no significant impact of interest rates on inflation in Nigeria.
  2. There exists no significant relationship between exchange rates and inflation in Nigeria.
  3. Variations in the unemployment rate have no significant influence on inflation in Nigeria.

 Alternative Hypotheses(H1):

  1. There is a significant impact of interest rates on inflation in Nigeria.
  2. There exists a significant relationship between exchange rates and inflation in Nigeria.
  3. Variations in the unemployment rate have a significant influence on inflation in Nigeria.

 Significance of the Study

Gaining a profound understanding of the intricate dynamics between monetary policy and inflation in Nigeria is of paramount significance for a multitude of stakeholders. This comprehension serves as a crucial tool for policymakers, enabling them to fine-tune monetary strategies in a manner that contributes to enhanced economic stability. By delving into the nuanced relationship between these two elements, policymakers can derive valuable insights that empower them to craft and implement measures addressing inflationary challenges effectively. This, in turn, promotes a more resilient economic environment capable of withstanding fluctuations and uncertainties.

For businesses operating in Nigeria, the ability to anticipate and respond to inflationary trends is essential for strategic decision-making. As inflation directly impacts the costs of goods and services, businesses need to navigate this economic variable adeptly to optimize operations, pricing strategies, and overall financial planning. Armed with a comprehensive understanding of how monetary policy influences inflation, businesses can make informed decisions that bolster their resilience in the face of economic uncertainties. This strategic acumen contributes to the overall economic health of enterprises, fostering an environment conducive to growth and sustainability.

Similarly, consumers in Nigeria stand to benefit significantly from a nuanced understanding of the interplay between monetary policy and inflation. Informed consumers can adjust their spending patterns, savings strategies, and investment decisions based on anticipated inflationary trends. This not only safeguards their financial well-being but also contributes to the overall stability of the consumer-driven segments of the economy. Moreover, a populace that is well-versed in the dynamics of monetary policy and inflation is better equipped to advocate for policies that align with their economic interests, thereby fostering a more inclusive and participatory economic landscape.

In essence, the symbiotic relationship between monetary policy and inflation in Nigeria extends its impact across various dimensions of the economy. From policymakers shaping strategies for economic stability to businesses and consumers making informed decisions, a comprehensive understanding of this relationship is pivotal for navigating the complexities of the economic landscape in Nigeria.

 Scope of the Study

This study focused on the period from 2010 to 2022, analyzing the impact of monetary policy variables on inflation in Nigeria. The examination encompassed both demand-pull and cost-push inflation, providing a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted nature of inflation within the Nigerian economic context.

 Operational Definition of Terms

To ensure clarity and consistency, the following terms were operationally defined:

Monetary Policy: The set of measures implemented by the central bank to regulate the supply of money and credit in the economy.

Interest Rates: The cost of borrowing money or the return on investment expressed as a percentage, as determined by the central bank.

Exchange Rates: The value of one currency in terms of another, influencing international trade and capital flows.

Inflation: The general increase in prices and the fall in the purchasing value of money.

Demand-pull Inflation: Inflation caused by an increase in aggregate demand for goods and services, outstripping supply.

Cost-push Inflation: Inflation is caused by an increase in the cost of production, leading to higher prices for goods and services.

Fiscal Policy: Government measures, such as taxation and spending, to influence economic conditions.



  • Omotosho, B. S., & Doguwa, S. I. (2019). Understanding the Dynamics of Inflation Volatility in Nigeria: A GARCH Perspective. CBN Journal of Applied Statistics, 3(2), 51-74.
  • Onuchukwu, O., & Adoghor, G. I. (2020). Macroeconomic: Theory and applications. Port Harcourt: Sambros Press.
  • Onwachukwu, C. I. (2020). Impact of monetary policy on inflation control in Nigeria. MPRA Paper 67087, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Orubu, C. O. (2018). Anit – inflation policy in Nigeria: The past and the future. Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, 38(2), 111-127.
  • Otto, G. (2021). Minimum wage; economist allays fears of inflation. Uniport Weekly 5 August p.2.



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