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ABSTRACT

The low rate of female participation in politics compared to that of their male counter- parts in Nigeria creates a need to examine the situation in this study, The Role of Radio in the Awareness of gender Inclusion and the Mobilisation of Women for Political Participation. This study examines the problems, first, defining the importance of women to participate in politics. The survey research method was employed in this study and questionnaires were used for data collection. The results reflect that radio have positive impact in mobilizing women to participate in politics. In summary, broadcast media is found wanting in fostering development for gender equality in politics. In recommendations, suggestion of ways to stimulate female participation was made by looking at practical examples of how this was done in the pre-colonial era. Finally, in conclusion, the study emphasizes that no sex or gender is more important than the other because in politics, intellectual ability counts more than physical energy.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Women make up a significant proportion of the Nigerian population. They are involved in the agricultural and economic areas of society, and they have made significant contributions to the decolonization and overall development of this wonderful country.Women struggles date back to the 19th century when women like Amina of Zaria, Madam Tinubu of Lagos, Olufuamilayo Ransom Kute of Abeokuta, Margaret Ekpo and Hajji Gabon Swabia among others fought to give women the pride of place in Nigeria’s history even after the struggle for independence was over and Nigeria became an independent soveign nation, women continued to contribute their quota in the post- independence match towards development and progress. In terms of politics, the aforementioned organisations, among others, have made significant contributions to the mobilisation and sensitization of women in order to ensure that women are participating in the country’s politics.At the moment, women’s issues have contributed to attracting worldwide attention, resulting in actual solutions to the difficulties that hamper their advancement. As a result, the crusted for women’s empowerment has raised women’s political consciousness. Some of them hold key positions in government, where they have proven their worth. Dora Akunyili, Oby Ezekwesili of Due Process Fame, Ndi Okereke Onyilike, and Ngozi Okonji Iweala, to name a few, have unquestionably distinguished themselves in their official capacities.Women’s roles in development have long been taken for granted and pushed to the margins. Politics in Nigeria has traditionally been played with a patronising attitude that typically does not go far in enlightening women. Some of the characteristics used include societal and cultural practises that have previously been misconstrued to cause prejudices against women. Women must be appropriately orientated so that their numerical strength and voting power may be productively galvanised and turned towards the empowerment of other women, who will then care after the welfare of all women by enacting gender sensitive laws to advance women’s causes.What is the true meaning of politics? Politics has been characterised by various scholars as the art of the possibility, a game of wits, and everything that begins and ends with government. Politics is, at its core, the art and science of governing. That is, the study of power and its distribution and application over human activities in society.Politics comes from the Greek term Polis, which meaning “city state.” According to Winter and Bellows (1968), Aristotle (384-322 Bc) stated in his treatise on human associations that the most sovereign inclusive association is the polis, which presupposes the establishment of government, law-making, enforcement, and eliciting obedience from society members. Aristotle recognised that man is a political animal by nature. This means that politics pervades all aspects of human activity. It presents itself in social, economic, and cultural intersections between individuals and organisations, and it crosses international borders.

The evident manoeuvre linked with the notion and practise of politics prompted the development of the Laswellian theory of politics, which asserts that politics is concerned with who gets what and how (Laswellian 1958).The Nairobi global conference in 1985 to evaluate and appraise the achievements of the UN Decade for Women, and the Beijing fourth world conference on women in 1995, both included topics impacting women and the media at the top of their agendas. Despite international conferences and policies aimed at gender equality, this conference highlighted the importance of the media in the pursuit of gender equity in development. However, women’s participation in Nigerian politics is hampered by the media’s portrayal of politics as an exclusively male domain.

Recent events have demonstrated the importance of broad-cast media in the political evolution of nations. Broadcasting is not just a tool of teaching, sensitising, and delivering messages about development concerns; it is also critical to the development process. Given the fact that broadcast is progressively being utilised throughout the world because to its ability to reach a vast number of people, it should not be overlooked in the political scheme of things. This might explain why Nwankwo (1996: XI) stated that the media is a crucial component in the promotion of gender equality in politics.

The goal here is not only to critically examine the influence of broadcast media in the pursuit of a gender equitable polity, but also to direct feminists’ and media scholars’ attention to broadcast in terms of gender and politics. As a result, the emphasis is on the gender component of broadcast and the pursuit of a gender fair politics.

It is proposed here that radio might have a big impact on the acceleration and acceptance of women in politics.

1.2  Statement Of Research Problem

It is a well-known truth that women are underrepresented in politics. This might be due to the underlying idea that a woman’s place is in the kitchen. In other words, her domestic and family obligations should take precedence over her active engagement in national growth in general.

Another belief that works against female involvement is that women are not physiologically intended for physically demanding and dangerous jobs. This argument may be false since, in the age of automation and decision-making revolution, intellectual aptitude is more important than physical energy.

Gender prejudice also has a significant role in women’s poor political engagement. Beverly (1995) observes that society thinks that women should only be mothers, school instructors, hairdressers, secretaries, nurses, maids, and social workers, and that they do not require education, let alone participation in decision making. This belief is incorrect, as both men and women must and may pursue politics and development initiatives, each in their own unique way, alongside one another.

The family environment also has a role in female political engagement. At home, men’ opinions can directly or indirectly affect their wives’ decisions about whether or not to enter politics.

Many political parties, reflecting broader societal conditions, do not readily accept or promote many women into their echelons, let alone allow women to hold important positions within these parties. This is especially crucial in light of Abdullah’s (1993) contention that women’s liberation must be placed inside democratic movements.

As a result, if this issue is not addressed, women will remain illiterate, the country’s economy would suffer, and political progress will suffer.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The objective of this study is to examine The Role of Radio in the Awareness of gender Inclusion and the Mobilisation of Women for Political Participation. There is need for attitudinal change and total reorientation in this respect.

Another objective of the study is to stop the issue of women being victims of violence in the home.

1.4 Research Questions

In this study, an attempt will be sufficiently made to answer the following questions.

  1. Does colonial antecedent influences women participation in politics?
  2. To what extent does culture affect women participation in politics in Nigeria?
  3. Do Radio actually mobilize women enough towards political participation?
  4. Does women participation in politics depend on their exposure to radio broadcasting media?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

It is expected that at the end of this study, to update knowledge within the framework of the study. Particularly, it will assist people’s views on the usefulness of broadcast media in mobilizing women to take part in decision-making. This study will draw the attention of government to empower women to participate in politics through the use of radio, television, films and motion pictures in their packaging of news reports and events, and to academics in their practices and training of journalist. The government should promote the welfare of women in general. Also the federal government should promote the full utilization of women in the development of human resources and to bring about their acceptance as full participation in every phase of national development with equal rights and corresponding obligations least involving 30% elective positions for women.

Another important significance of this is for election to be conducted according to the rules, in which all qualified individuals especially women are free to vote or be voted for with out constraints of manipulations. (Williams, 2008).

1.6 Scope Of The Study

In my study, it is obviously seen that the broadcast media will always be at its peak in mobilizing women for political participation through which these women are enlightened, educated and sensitized more on political participation.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

There are many limitations ranging form not knowing where to start, not knowing who to consult or approach for materials not knowing what next to write in various segment of this study and not actually knowing who to put me through in achieving my work.

Secondly, as we know, our nations economy is very bad that finance become a serious problem to my research study due to lack of fund to get to some places, people and to get one  thing done or the other done. Due to that it creates a barrier to the study.

Finally, back pains, dizziness as well as the researcher’s respondent’s inability to return questionnaires that was given to them adequately.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

In this study, certain key words will be explained into conceptual and operational definitions.  

Role: The degree to which somebody/ something is involved in a situation or an activity and the effect that they have on it.

Role: Functions, expectations associated on a given past or position

Broadcast: It include television and radio which are means of communicating to heterogeneous and homogenous audience.

Mobilizing: It has to do with organizing or preparing people for a particular purpose.

Women: Womanly-having qualities held to be appropriate.

Participation: Taking active part in that particular activity or event.

Politics: A competition between political parties to wards who or which party assumes political leadership

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