1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This study is on the role of teenagers in the westernization of Nigeria a case study of South West Nigeria. The term culture has been defined differently by many people. The different definitions attached to culture are based on the differences in the orientation of the people.
According to Ekeh (2012), culture is construct used in an attempt to analyzed and integrate events and ideals in broad spectrum of area of society. Jakayinka (2002) states that from wider perspective, culture includes the total repertoire of human action which are socially transmitted from generation to generation. Obiora (2002), say that the transformation of culture is gradual and not sudden. Culture is a continuous process of change. It changes exactly the same way as the human being changes. It is dynamic, learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through contact or means of communication flow from generation to generation. The Nigeria culture is observed to be fading out as a result of the acceptance and adaptation of the mode mist’s solution on to underdevelopment. This paper aims at assessing the role that teenagers play in this movement.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
According to Nnonyelu (2006:99) “Nigeria culture following its contact with lifestyle constantly portrayed by the media appears to have caved in” and continues to do so as years go by.
The tendency for teenagers to imitate, emulate and copy what they see (in the media) is a major cause of this situation especially as seen in the emerging culture of the country’s youth. The youths try to sheepishly copy the lifestyle of the western world as presented by the media. To dress, walk and do anything resembling western way of life is seen as a significant index of one’s social standing. This can be attributed to the fact that “the closer a person’s attitude is to western norms and values, the greater the opportunity open to the person and the higher the person’s position on the social ladder’’ (Ojiha 2006:48). The youths are deluded to think that they have vast individual choices and opportunities to believe, think, behave and dress as presented by the media. Unfortunately, the addiction to this borrowed lifestyle leaves the individual without an identified culture and this eliminates him/her from the society.
The western culture has influenced Nigerians mostly the southwest youths in the following ways:
- They hardly greet their elders due to their exposure to western culture through the media
- They copy the way and manner the western people dresses
- They hardly greet their elders and if they do they don’t go down with their knees and the males prostrate to show sign of respect, which was the major attribute of the Yoruba youths.
With the advent of social media, internet and social networks, the cultural value that has been built for years by fore-fathers of Nigeria culture especially in the southwest youth thrown down the drain due to what the youth called civilization.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The aim of this study is to highlight and understand the role of youths in the westernization of Nigeria, more specially the objectives of this study include to;
- Find out and assess the impact of western civilization on the Yoruba culture.
- Assess the extent of impact of those media contents on the country’s youths especially in relation to what they wear.
- Find out if there are factors responsible for this influence.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study will help create data base for intervention programs that would help promote and showcase aspects of Southwest culture that are good by making them attractive to the youths.
It will help the youths to understand the adverse effects of imitating the dress pattern on the western culture and its effects on Nigeria cultural values, so as that they can now make a responsible choice.
This study will help the National Broadcasting Commission to know the adverse effects of western contents on domestic television so as to make them effect better regulations on the matter.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Are the youths responsible for western civilization?
- What is the level of the youth exposure to foreign media?
- Do foreign media contents influence the dress sense of the youth?
- Does the exposure to foreign media have other effects on the youths such a beliefs values, language, foods and names?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Hi Youths influence western culture in Nigeria
H0 Youths do not influence western culture in Nigeria
H2 Foreign media content influence the dress sense of the youths.
H0 Foreign media content does not influence the dress sense of the youths.
H3 Exposure to foreign media content have other effects on the youths (beliefs values, language, foods).
H0 Exposure to foreign media do not have other effects on the youths
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Culture: Culture is the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts. Also the term culture refers to the language, beliefs, values and norms, customs, dress, diet, roles, knowledge and skills, and all the other things that people learn that makes up the way of life of any society.
- Civilization: It is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
- Cultural Identity: Cultural identity refers to a person’s sense of belonging to a particular culture or group. This process involves learning about and accepting traditions, heritage, language, religion, ancestry, aesthetics, thinking patterns, and social structures of a culture. Normally, people internalize the beliefs, values, norms, and social practices of their culture and identify themselves with that culture. However, some studies have noted that existing cultural identity theory may not account for the fact that different individuals and groups may not react to or interpret events, happenings, attitudes, etc. in the same ways as other individuals or groups.
- Cultural Inferiority: Cultural inferiority, in cultural studies and social anthropology, is an internalized inferiority complex that causes people in a country to dismiss their own culture as inferior to the cultures of other countries. It is closely related to the concept of colonial mentality and is often linked with the display of anti–intellectual attitudes towards thinkers, scientists, and artists who originate from a colonial or post–colonial It can also be manifested in individuals in the form of cultural alienation.
- Cultural Disorientation: This is a personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life due to immigration or a visit to new country, a move between social environments, or simply travel to another type of life.
- Cultural Dominance: Cultural Dominance is the practice of separating, or artificially injecting the culture or language of one culture into another. Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting a more powerful culture over a least known or desirable culture. It is usually the case that the former belongs to a larger, economically or militarily powerful nation and the latter belongs to a smaller, less powerful one.
- Colonial Mentality: A colonial mentality is the internalized attitude of ethnic or cultural inferiority felt by a people as a result of colonization,e. them being colonized by another group. It corresponds with the belief that the cultural values of the colonizer are inherently superior to one’s own. The term has been used by postcolonial scholars to discuss the transgenerational effects of colonialism present in former colonies following decolonization. It is commonly used as an operational concept for framing ideological domination in historical colonial experiences. In psychology colonial mentality has been used to explain instances of collective depression, anxiety, and other widespread mental health issues in populations that have experienced colonization.
- Inferiority Complex: An inferiority complex is the lack of self-worth, a doubt and uncertainty about oneself, and feelings of not measuring up to standards. It is often subconscious, and is thought to drive afflicted individuals to overcompensate, resulting either in spectacular achievement or extremely asocial behavior. In modern literature, the preferred terminology is “lack of covert self–esteem“. For many, it is developed through a combination of genetic personality characteristics and personal experiences.
- Cultural Confusion: Cultural confusion is also called cultural dissonance is an uncomfortable sense of discord, disharmony, or conflict experienced by people in the midst of change in their cultural environment.