1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The educational sector in Nigeria is in continuous change with the advancement in the level of technology and introduction of teaching aids.
The effectiveness of the use of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of business education can only be seen in the level of academic performance of students in business education.
Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching and learning process. It enhances the memory level of the students. According to (NIC hulls, 2003; Raw 2006) state that at this time that education has spread wide and entirely, oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy; therefore the teacher has to use instructional materials to make teaching and learning process interesting.
According to Abdullahhi (2010), stated that instructional materials are tools locally made or imported that help to facilitate the teaching/learning process. In that same vein according to Obanga (2005) view them as materials things which are use to composed ported that could make tremendous enhancement of intellectual use impact the instructional materials.
The use of instructional materials can enhance the learning achievement. Cronbach (2009) states the important elements of behaviour that provides the base for learning theory situation which consists of all the objects, persons and symbols in the learning environment.
According to Umoh-Mac Nkume (2000) many researches on the availability of available resource carried out in Nigeria, in schools offering Business Education programme often revealed the presence of inadequate training facilities in the schools.
They further stressed that even the few available ones are not being maintained. There are poor storage facilities for them and so they become non-functional.
Obi and Akume (2001) warned that any school that any school that desire to offer modern Business Education programme must include in its programme, a thorough training in the use of thee appliances.
Also to give such training the school must be equipped with appliances with which it intends to give instructions. To take the point further, they stated that for the teaching process to effectively taken place generally, both human and materials resources need to be provided adequately.
It is to this regard that the study wishes to examine the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools in Oyigbo River State
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Inspire of the federal government emphasis on self-reliance through acquired, still suffers some defects such as inadequate supply or provision of resource materials, poor maintenance and storage of existing ones.
Oren (1998) observed that, being a skill-oriented subject, Business Education requires the use of machine and other equipment for effective teaching to take place. It is therefore, exceptive teaching to take place. It is therefore expected that the federal government through the ministries of education federal, state and local government will see to the provision or availability of theses necessary resources for teaching and learning of these requirement skills.
According to Oyedele (2000) citied in Atakps (2001) Nigeria children and youths are being educated more in accordance with yesterday’s world rather than in preparation for tomorrow’s living. This is in agreement with what Umoh-Mac and Nkume (2000) said about the obsolete equipment found in Nigeria schools.
Emphasizing the need for the provision of instructional materials in schools, Obi and Akume opine that, Business Education subject being a skilled area of study cannot be learnt by the student sitting and folding their arms and nodding their heads. To give this training, the schools must be equipped with the necessary materials on which it intends to give, but rather it appears that most school that offer Business Education subject are not adequately equipped for the instructions. Resource materials are means of making teaching and learning process easy, more meaningful and understandable, Uzoegwu (2001).
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to examine the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools. Other specific objectives of the study include:
1. To examine the effect of the use of instructional materials in teaching on the academic achievement in business education
2. To determine the factors affecting the performance of student in business education
3. To determine the relationship between the use of instructional materials in teaching and students academic performance in business education
4. To discuss on the effect of management decision on the availability of instructional materials for teaching and learning business education
5. To proffer solution to the above stated problems
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:
1. What is the effect of the use of instructional materials in teaching on the academic achievement in business education in most junior secondary schools in Oyigbo River state?
2. What are the factors affecting the performance of student in business education?
3. Is there any the relationship between the use of instructional materials in teaching and students academic performance in business education?
4. What is the effect of management decision on the availability of instructional materials for teaching and learning business education?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: the use of instructional materials does not influence effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary school
H1: the use of instructional materials influences effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary school
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools will be of immense benefit to the entire River state and other researchers that wishes to carryout similar research on the research topic as it will discuss the effect of the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools. The study will also discuss the factors affecting the availability of instructional materials in most junior secondary schools in Oyigbo LGA. River state.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning business education in Oyigbo River state will cover the relationship between the use of instructional materials and students academic achievement in business education in junior secondary schools.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
BUSINESS EDUCATION: involves teaching students the fundamentals, theories, and processes of business
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities
Raw N. M, (2006) instruction to educational technology, Johns Lod publisher ltd, Lagos
NIC hulls, (2003) the place of instructional materials in curriculum development; “education and development
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Abdullahhi, N.O,and Umoh-Mac Nkume (2010). Teaching tools teaching in the secondary school new York: Macmillan publishing co. Inc
Cronbach, L.D (2009). The use of instructional materials in the teaching of science” (ed) in fundamental of education technology Unicross
Obi & Akume, (2001). Availability and Adequacy of educational facilities for the Implementation of the Senior Secondary School Clothing and Textile Curriculum in Southern Zone of Ghana. Retrieved on 17th July 2007 from http://www.moe.edu.sg/it education/edtech/papers/d1.pdf .
Oren S.T, (1998). Teaching secondary schools essay writing with African native culture. World council for curriculum and instruction: region II forum. 1, (1) 76-83.
Oyedele, T.I, (2000). Instructional media and technologies for learning (7thEd.). Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall.
Atakps, N.K, (2001). Nigeria private sector and education for all: a report on the private sector round-table. Ibadan: Spectrum Book Ltd.
Ekong, A. O. & Uzoegwu, I. J, (2001). Selection and utilization of instructional materials: implications for vocational and technical education in Nigeria. In Anyakoha, E. U. and Osuala, E. C. (Ed.). Vocational/technical education and technological growth. Nigeria Vocational association publication, Department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 131-145[email protected][email protected]