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Using Health Multi-Stakeholders’ Participation in Understanding and Tackling Rampaging Poverty in Nigeria


This study centred on investigating the roles and contributions of health multi-stakeholders in poverty alleviation efforts in Nigeria. The study adopted a quantitative survey research design to gather data from a sample of 120 respondents using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were then analyzed using SPSS27 software, with the t-test employed to test the hypotheses formulated in the study. The findings of the study revealed significant relationships between the involvement of health multi-stakeholders and various aspects of poverty alleviation strategies. Specifically, the study found that enhanced engagement and collaboration among health stakeholders positively impacted poverty reduction initiatives. Collaborative efforts between health stakeholders and other sectors were also found to have a substantial positive impact on poverty alleviation outcomes. Furthermore, the study highlighted the importance of communication, coordination, and capacity building in enhancing the effectiveness of poverty reduction strategies involving health stakeholders. Based on the findings, the study concluded that involving health multi-stakeholders in poverty alleviation efforts is crucial for achieving sustainable and comprehensive outcomes. The study emphasized the need for continued collaboration, knowledge sharing, and partnership building among stakeholders to address the complex challenges of poverty in Nigeria effectively. In light of the conclusions drawn, several recommendations were put forward. Firstly, there is a need for policymakers and organizations to prioritize multi-stakeholder partnerships and foster a conducive environment for collaboration. Capacity-building initiatives should be implemented to enhance the skills and knowledge of health stakeholders involved in poverty alleviation programs. Moreover, communication channels and platforms should be improved to facilitate better coordination and information sharing among stakeholders.




Background to the Study

In recent years, poverty has remained a pressing issue globally, particularly in developing countries like Nigeria (Gerlak et al., 2020). Despite efforts to alleviate poverty through various socio-economic interventions, its prevalence continues to ravage communities, hindering social and economic progress (Cook et al., 2017). Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, grapples with high poverty rates, posing significant challenges to sustainable development and the well-being of its citizens (Backstrand et al., 2022). Poverty in Nigeria is multifaceted, encompassing economic, social, and health dimensions, thereby necessitating comprehensive strategies for its understanding and eradication (Gereke & Bruhl, 2019).

The multifaceted nature of poverty in Nigeria underscores the importance of adopting holistic approaches that address its various dimensions simultaneously (Ariti et al., 2018). Economic factors such as unemployment, low wages, and income inequality contribute significantly to the prevalence of poverty in the country (Aggraeni et al., 2019). Additionally, social factors such as lack of access to education, healthcare, and social protection further exacerbate the problem (Chan et al., 2019). Moreover, health-related issues such as high disease burden, inadequate healthcare infrastructure, and limited access to essential health services disproportionately affect the poor, perpetuating the cycle of poverty (Hsu et al., 2019).

Efforts to combat poverty in Nigeria require a multifaceted approach that addresses its root causes and underlying determinants (Banks et al., 2015). This includes implementing policies and programs aimed at promoting inclusive economic growth, improving access to education and healthcare, and strengthening social safety nets (Bansard et al., 2022). Furthermore, empowering marginalized communities, promoting gender equality, and enhancing local governance structures are essential for sustainable poverty reduction (Biermann et al., 2022). Additionally, addressing environmental degradation and climate change impacts is crucial, as they often disproportionately affect vulnerable populations and exacerbate poverty (Beisheim et al., 2022).

Collaboration and partnership among various stakeholders are vital for the effective implementation of poverty alleviation initiatives in Nigeria (Biermann et al., 2021). This includes government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), civil society groups, the private sector, and international development partners (Compagnon, 2022). By leveraging the expertise, resources, and networks of diverse stakeholders, it is possible to design and implement more comprehensive and sustainable poverty reduction strategies (Kelly et al., 2022). Moreover, promoting participatory decision-making processes and ensuring the active involvement of affected communities are essential for the success and legitimacy of poverty alleviation efforts (Kalfagianni & Pattberg, 2023).

Statement of Problem

The persistent challenge of poverty in Nigeria underscores the need for a deeper understanding of its underlying causes and dynamics. Despite numerous efforts and interventions aimed at poverty alleviation, the problem remains pervasive, particularly in marginalized communities (Cook et al., 2017). There is a gap in knowledge regarding the effectiveness of existing poverty reduction strategies and their impact on vulnerable populations (Gerlak et al., 2020). Additionally, the role of socio-economic factors, such as income inequality, access to education and healthcare, and employment opportunities, in perpetuating poverty requires further investigation (Aggraeni et al., 2019).

Furthermore, there is limited research on the intersection between poverty and health outcomes in Nigeria (Hsu et al., 2019). While it is widely recognized that poverty contributes to poor health outcomes, there is a need to explore the specific pathways through which poverty affects health, as well as the potential interventions to mitigate these effects (Backstrand et al., 2022). Additionally, the impact of environmental degradation and climate change on poverty dynamics in Nigeria remains understudied (Gereke & Bruhl, 2019). Understanding how environmental factors exacerbate poverty and vice versa is crucial for designing effective adaptation and mitigation strategies.

Moreover, there is a dearth of research on the role of multi-stakeholder participation in poverty alleviation efforts in Nigeria (Banks et al., 2015). While collaboration among different actors is often touted as essential for sustainable development, there is limited empirical evidence on the effectiveness of such partnerships in the context of poverty reduction (Compagnon, 2022). Understanding the barriers to effective multi-stakeholder collaboration and identifying best practices for promoting inclusive decision-making processes are critical for designing more effective poverty alleviation strategies (Kalfagianni & Pattberg, 2023). Addressing these gaps in knowledge is essential for developing evidence-based policies and interventions that can effectively tackle poverty and promote sustainable development in Nigeria.

 Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study include:

  1. To examine the contribution of health multi-stakeholders in understanding the dynamics of poverty in Nigeria.
  2. To assess the effectiveness of existing collaborative efforts between health stakeholders and other sectors in addressing poverty.
  3. To propose recommendations for enhancing the involvement of health multi-stakeholders in poverty alleviation strategies.

Research Questions

To guide the investigation, the following research questions were formulated:

  1. What are the roles and contributions of health multi-stakeholders in understanding the underlying causes and manifestations of poverty in Nigeria?
  2. How effective are current collaborative initiatives involving health stakeholders in addressing poverty-related challenges in Nigeria?
  3. What strategies can be adopted to improve the engagement of health multi-stakeholders in poverty alleviation efforts?

 Research Hypotheses

Based on the research questions, the following hypotheses were formulated:

Null Hypotheses(H0):

  1. There is no significant relationship between the involvement of health multi-stakeholders and the understanding of poverty dynamics in Nigeria.
  2. Collaborative efforts involving health stakeholders and other sectors have no positive impact on poverty alleviation outcomes.
  3. Enhanced engagement of health multi-stakeholders does not lead to more effective strategies for tackling poverty in Nigeria.

Alternative Hypotheses(H1):

  1. There is a significant relationship between the involvement of health multi-stakeholders and the understanding of poverty dynamics in Nigeria.
  2. Collaborative efforts involving health stakeholders and other sectors have a positive impact on poverty alleviation outcomes.
  3. Enhanced engagement of health multi-stakeholders leads to more effective strategies for tackling poverty in Nigeria.

Significance of the Study

This study carries profound implications for addressing poverty in Nigeria through policy formulation, program implementation, and advocacy. By exploring the involvement of health multi-stakeholders, this research illuminates the crucial role that health perspectives play in poverty alleviation strategies. Decision-makers will gain valuable insights into the significance of integrating health considerations into poverty reduction initiatives. Understanding how health factors intersect with poverty dynamics can lead to more targeted and effective interventions that address the root causes of poverty and improve overall well-being.

Furthermore, the findings of this study offer valuable insights into enhancing collaboration mechanisms among diverse stakeholders. Effective collaboration is essential for maximizing the impact of existing poverty alleviation interventions and promoting sustainable development. By examining successful collaboration models involving health multi-stakeholders, this research provides practical guidance on fostering partnerships that can amplify the effectiveness of poverty reduction efforts. These insights can inform the design and implementation of collaborative initiatives that leverage the strengths and resources of various sectors to tackle poverty comprehensively.

 Scope of the Study

This study focused on the involvement of health multi-stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, policymakers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and community health workers, in addressing poverty in Nigeria. The research explored their roles, contributions, and challenges encountered in collaborative efforts to understand and tackle poverty. The study was limited to selected regions in Nigeria, and data collection was conducted through interviews, surveys, and document analysis.

Operational Definition of Terms

Health Multi-Stakeholders: Refers to individuals, organizations, and institutions involved in the healthcare sector, including healthcare professionals, policymakers, NGOs, and community health workers.

Poverty: Refers to a state of deprivation characterized by insufficient income, lack of access to necessities, and limited opportunities for socio-economic advancement.

Stakeholder Participation: Involves the active involvement and engagement of relevant actors in decision-making processes and interventions related to poverty alleviation.

Nigeria: Refers to the Federal Republic of Nigeria, a country located in West Africa, with a diverse population and significant socio-economic challenges.

Collaborative Efforts: Refers to coordinated actions undertaken by multiple stakeholders working together to address common challenges, such as poverty.

Sustainable Development: Refers to development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, encompassing economic, social, and environmental dimensions.

Policy Formulation: Refers to the process of designing and developing policies, strategies, and action plans to address specific issues or challenges, such as poverty.

Program Implementation: Refers to the execution of planned activities, interventions, and initiatives aimed at achieving predetermined objectives and outcomes, typically within a specified timeframe.



  • Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (Eds.). (2017). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioural Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  • Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2021). Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53–55. doi:10.5116/ijme.4dfb.8dfd
  • UNDP Human Development Report. (2023). UNDP, Choices: The Human Development Magazine.
  • World Bank. (2019). Nigeria – Social protection. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/nigeria/brief/nigeria-socialprotection.
  • World Bank. (2021). Nigeria: Human Capital Index. Retrieved from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/HNACAPNGA?locations=NG


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