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Download this complete Project material titled; Utilization Of Information And Communication Technology (Ict) For Effective Teaching In Colleges Of Education In Cross River State with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

The study was designed to determine the extent of ICT facilities utilization
by lecturers and enhancement of effective teaching in Colleges of Education
in Cross River State. Specifically, the study was designed to determine the
extent of ICT facilities availability, accessibility, requisite skills of lecturers,
how often lecturers utilize ICT facilities and how they on the utilization of
these facilities in enhancing effective teaching. The study was guided by 5
research questions and 5 null hypotheses. Descriptive survey design was
adopted for the study and because of the size the entire population was
studied. Utilization of ICT Facilities for Effective Teaching Questionnaire
(UICTFETQ) was the instrument used for data collection. The instrument
was validated by four experts and the overall reliability coefficient of 0.771
was obtained. The data collected from the five research questions of the study
were analyzed using the mean and standard deviation. A one way analysis of
variance (ANOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses 1-4. The
independent t-test was used to test hypothesis 5. The data analysis revealed
that, the availability and accessibility of ICT facilities in enhancing effective
teaching is to a very low extent, the extent to which lecturers possess the
requisite skills of ICT facilities utilization is to a low extent. That lecturers in
the Colleges very seldom utilize ICT facilities and that the extent to which
lecturers in public and private colleges differ on the utilization of ICT
facilities in enhancing effective teaching is to a low extent. It was
recommended that, Government and other agencies should ensure the supply
of ICT facilities and lecturers be allowed access to the available ICT
facilities. Training programmes on ICT utilization should be organized for
lecturers regularly.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Table of Content vi
List of Tables viii
Abstract ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 7
Purpose of the Study 9
Significance of the Study 10
Research Questions 12
Hypotheses 13
Scope of the Study 14
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 15
Conceptual Framework 15
The Concept of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 15
The Concept of Effective Teaching 21
Availability of ICT Facilities for Lecturers Utilization in Enhancing
Effective Teaching 23
Accessibility of ICT Facilities for Lecturers Utilization in Enhancing
Effective Teaching 26
Requisite Skills of Lecturers on ICT Facilities Utilization in Enhancing
Effective Teaching 28
Utilization of ICT for Effective Teaching 32
Theoretical Framework 48
Information Theory 48
Communication Theory 51
Media Richness Theory 53
Empirical Studies 54
Summary of Literature Review 63
vii
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 65
Design of the Study 65
Area of the Study 65
Population of the Study 66
Sample and Sampling Technique 67
Instrument for Data Collection 67
Validation of the Instrument 69
Reliability of the Instrument 70
Procedure for Data Collection 70
Method of Data Analysis 71
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 73
Summary of Findings 95
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION
AND RECOMMENDATIONS 99
Discussion of Findings 99
Conclusion 106
Implications of the Study 107
Recommendations 109
Limitation of the Study 110
Suggestion for Further Study 111
REFERENCES 112
APPENDICES 123
Appendix A: Distribution of Population of the Study 123
Appendix B: Letter of Introduction 124
Appendix C: Instrument for Data Collection 125
Appendix D: Reliability Estimate 129
Appendix E: Result of Data Analysis for rating of ICT facilities
utilization in enhancing effective teaching 138
Appendix F: Analysis of Variance for hypotheses 1, 2, 3 & 4
and Independence t-test for hypothesis 5 150

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Information and communication technology (ICT) is already vital tool
in the successful development of education. Therefore, teaching and learning
in the emerging societies require effective utilization of ICT to facilitate
instructional delivery. Information and Communication Technology has
therefore become a critical tool for professional training of teachers.
It facilitates teacher training for an improved educational system.
Consequently, the sooner teachers and students alike understand how to use
ICT facilities, the earlier they would appreciate its importance in realizing
their teaching and learning objectives. Recently, the Federal Government
contended that computer knowledge would be a requirement for teacher
employment, interviews and in some cases promotions. (Ikenga, Akiti and
Onyemah, 2009).
The utilization of ICT facilities in teaching and learning will
immensely enhance the quality of instruction in Colleges of Education.
However, availability, accessibility and requisite skills of lecturers in ICT
facilities may affect utilization. This may account for why lecturers in
Colleges of Education still employ only the traditional classroom method of
teaching, which has not meaningfully contributed in reviving the downward
trend in the educational system.
2
ICT refers to the automated and computerized form of collecting, typing,
copying, processing, analyzing, managing, storing, retrieving and using
information for problem-solving and decision making in every aspect of
human endeavour. It is daily giving rise to new concepts, new ideas and
creating impact in the education sector on a daily basis, such that the teaching
and learning process has been enhanced through it (Ajayi, Ekundayo &
Haastrup 2009). The emergence and use of ICT has simplified teaching and
learning through the application of electronic media, Internet, computers, epresence
video-conferencing and power point. This is confirmed by Ndukwe
(2006), who observed that the production and introduction of calculators and
computers in the education system has helped in simplifying teaching and
learning in schools thereby promoting and ensuring teaching effectiveness.
This has facilitated the paradigm shift from the traditional
instructional material or traditional pedagogical methods to a more modern
and innovative technologically based teaching and learning methods. Thus
the emergence of ICT has completely overhauled ways in which information
is accessed, processed, retrieved and disseminated within organizations or
across the globe and has positively affected the process of teaching.
(Anaekwe, 2003). Therefore, the application of ICT to the core business of
teaching and learning provides flexibility to meet the varied learning needs
and abilities of learners. Akpan, (2008) asserted that, ICT utilization in
teaching is capable of yielding numerous results which include: providing
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learners with immediate access to richer source of materials and providing
information in new and relevant ways, which help learners to understand,
assimilate and use it more readily. It motivates and stimulates teaching and
learning, and as well enhances learning for learners with special needs. It also
motivates learners to try out new ideas and take risk, encourages analytical
and divergent thinking. It encourages teachers to take fresh look at how they
teach and ways in which students learn. It sharpens learners’ attention and
also offers potentials for effective group and individual work (Ugwoke,
2011).
ICT facilities on their own do not enhance or stimulate the teaching
/learning process. They need to be manipulated. This has to do with the
lecturers’ ability to utilize the available and accessible ICT facilities. Pacey
(1999) stated that awareness towards the use of ICT in teaching and learning
is increasing in the classroom in the developing world such that, mere
verbalization of words alone in the classroom to communicate ideas, skills
and attitude to educate learners is futile.
Despite the enormous usefulness of ICT utilization in the teaching/
learning process, it may be obvious that most lecturers in Colleges of
Education do not use them because they lack the requisite skills on the use of
the facilities or that the facilities are not available or accessible. This may
have greatly affected their use in enhancing teaching effectiveness.
According to Yusuf (2005), the effectiveness of instructional delivery
4
depends on the lecturer’s ability to effectively use ICT facilities to enhance
his teaching. Considering the poor quality of the output in the Colleges of
Education today, it is only the appropriate and adequate utilization of ICT
facilities by lecturers for effective teaching and learning that can quickly
arrest the rapid decline in the educational standard. This perhaps, made
Laporan (2002) to make a case for exploring the significant use, availability,
accessibility and the level of ICT skills possessed by lecturers in enhancing
effective teaching and learning.
Asogwa (2007), also stated that, ICTs have encouraged new
researches and developments in teaching and learning techniques which
teacher training institutions should adopt to keep pace with ICT driven
society. Stevens (2001) listed the following as some of the ICTs for teaching
and learning. They include: audio-cassette tapes, radio, video-tapes, CDROM,
DVD, Internet, Web-Based Training (WBT) programmes, public
address system, audio-conferencing, interactive television, e-learning, videoconferencing,
computers and power point.
In the service of education, some of the ICT facilities have been
configured to specific systems, such as, Computer-Assisted Instruction
(CAI), Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL), Computer-Based Training
(CBT), Computer-Based Learning (CBL), Internet Based Learning (IBL) and
Electronic Learning (e-learning) (Ugwoke, 2011). Compared to the
5
traditional lecture method of teaching, the configuration of these facilities
have greatly enhanced teaching with better results.
Teaching and learning in this computerized and digital age have gone
beyond the didactic teacher standing in front of a group of students and
disseminating information to them effectively, without the adequate use of
ICT facilities. (Ajayi, 2008).
Babajide and Bolaji (2003) are of the view that, the various ICT
facilities used in the teaching and learning process in tertiary institutions in
Nigeria appear not sufficiently provided and thus might account for why
teachers do not use them in their teaching. In furtherance to this assertion
,Ajayi (2008) stated that, it must however be stressed that the effective use of
the various ICT facilities in teaching and learning depends on availability and
accessibility of the facilities and teachers competence in using them.
According to him, this might hinder the teachers exposure’ to the use of ICT
in teaching.
Lecturers in Colleges of Education in Cross River State may still be
relying on the traditional “chalk and talk” lecture method of teaching rather
than embracing the use of ICT to enhance instructional delivery. It is in this
vein that Okebukola (1997), posited that, computer is not part of classroom
technology in over 90% of tertiary institutions in Nigeria, thus the
chalkboard and textbooks continue to dominate classroom activities.
This presupposes that, there is a tendency that lecturers in Colleges of
6
Education do not avail themselves of the opportunities which ICT offers in
the teaching-learning activities. There is need to replace the traditional
pedagogical practices in Colleges of Education that emphasize didactic
approaches where the teacher is seen as the only source of knowledge rather
than participatory and discovery approaches that allow for multi-media
applications which enrich and enliven teaching, stimulate the learners, help in
retentions, illuminate and clarify non-verbal images, symbols and qualitative
relationship, thereby making learning available to wider audience and free
the teacher from repetitive tasks. It therefore becomes necessary to replace
the didactic methods of teaching with more innovative methods that
emphasize the use of a variety of ICT facilities .
Other areas of ICT utilization to enhance effective teaching in the
Colleges of Education that may have suffered neglect include admission of
students (through on-line registration and placement of students), registration
of students (through the provision of facilities for on-line registration),
students orientation (on-line information on course requirements, course
outline, procedure for adding and dropping courses, grading criteria etc),
instructional delivery (inadequate utilization of e-learning facilities to aid
students in their independent studies, which is very necessary for this
category of learners who are predominantly adults learners) and assessment
of students performance to ensure prompt release of results. (Akpan, 2008).
7
It may also be obvious that in the Colleges of Education in Cross River
State ICT facilities are either not available, accessible or that lecturers lack
the requisite skills to effectively use the facilities. Hence they do not use ICT
facilities to enhance effective teaching in such areas as practical lessons,
experiments, teaching large classes, teaching new concepts or methods
(which is of immense benefit to the students in their independent studies as
adult learners), conducting and grading of assessment tests .This may be
responsible for why lecturers in Colleges of Education still use the traditional
lecture methods of teaching for instructional delivery instead of employing
more modern ICT facilities to enhance teaching effectiveness. It is therefore
against this background that this study seeks to determine the utilization of
ICT for effective teaching in Colleges of Education in Cross River State.
Statement of the Problem
Education in the new emerging societies requires ICT facilities
application to facilitate more meaningful teaching and learning. The
utilization of ICT facilities in lectures , laboratories and other ways of
instructions could easily enhance the teaching /learning process. But the
effective utilization of ICT facilities to enhance effective teaching is largely
dependent on the availability, accessibility and the requisite skills of lecturers
on the ICT facilities utilization. One of the major challenges confronting
instructional delivery in Colleges of Education in Cross River State is the
8
issue of adjusting from the traditional lecture method to a more ICT
integrated teaching methods.
In view of the above, it might be that ICT facilities may not have been
provided in the Colleges of Education in Cross River State or that the
facilities are not accessible to lecturers for utilization or that the lecturers lack
the requisite skills to use the facilities which may be responsible for why they
do not use them.
The above reasons could adversely hinder the utilization of ICT facilities
for effective teaching in the colleges, which may also be responsible for the
poor quality of NCE (Nigeria Certificate in Education) graduates from
Colleges of Education in Cross River State. The problem of this study is to
determine the extent to which ICT facilities are available for lecturers’ use,
the extent to which the facilities are accessible to lecturers, the extent to
which lecturers possess the requisite skills to use the facilities and how often
they utilize them to enhance effective teaching in Colleges of Education in
Cross River State. Consequently this study sort to determine the extent of
ICT facilities utilization by lecturers in enhancing effective teaching in
Colleges of Education in Cross River State.
9
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to determine the extent of ICT
facilities utilization in enhancing effective teaching in Colleges of Education
in Cross River State.
Specifically, the study sort to:
1. Determine the extent of ICT facilities availability in Colleges of
Education in Cross River State for lecturers’ utilization in enhancing
effective teaching.
2. Determine the extent of ICT facilities accessibility for lecturers’
utilization in enhancing effective teaching in Colleges of Education in
Cross River State.
3. Ascertain the requisite skills of lecturers on ICT facilities utilization in
enhancing effective teaching in Colleges of Education in Cross River
State.
4. Investigate how often lecturers utilize ICT facilities in enhancing
effective teaching in Colleges of Education in Cross River State.
5. Ascertain the extent to which lecturers in public and private Colleges
of Education in Cross River State differ in the utilization of ICT
facilities in enhancing effective teaching.
10
Significance of the Study
The outcome of this research work will be highly beneficial to
educational administrators at the level of Federal and State Ministries of
Education (involved in formal adult education programmes), the National
Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE-the supervisory agency for all
Colleges of Education) Management Committees in the various Colleges of
Education, Lecturers and students in the Colleges of Education .
Educational Administrators (involved in formal adult education
programmes) at the various levels will benefit immensely from the findings
of this research work because it will fashion their administrative approaches
in terms of training and retraining of staff along the lines of ICT competence,
the type of facilities or equipment to acquire (in terms of quantity and
quality) staff recruitment, provision of infrastructure e.g. classroom or lecture
theatre. The NCE curriculum / minimum standard will also be fashioned in
an integrative form, so that ICTs will be an integral part of the prevailing
curriculum. Methods of instructional delivery will also be designed to
accommodate the utilization of ICT facilities. Educational administrators
will greatly benefit from the findings of this study as it relates to
organizational approaches to more flexible teaching/learning, research
oriented education and flexible attitude to time and space.
The various Management Committees in the colleges of Education
will find the findings of this study quite rewarding because it will provide
11
them adequate information on the adequacy of the available ICT facilities,
whether lecturers in their colleges use the available ICT facilities for
teaching, the extent to which lecturers in their colleges have acquired the
basic ICT skills to enable them use the available facilities and the type or
common ICT facilities that are required for effective teaching. This
information will in a nutshell assist college managements to address the ICT
needs in their colleges.
Lecturers will find the findings of this research study quite beneficial,
as they will be exposed to the need to regularly use ICT facilities to enhance
their teaching. The findings will also serve as a parameter for self-evaluation
for the lecturers who will also see the need to develop ICT competences or
requisite skills and how to use ICT facilities to access resource materials for
effective teaching. They will also be encouraged to effectively use ICT
facilities to improve the quality of their presentations in class, select the
appropriate facility for particular lessons, motivate students to achieve
positive attitudes to learning and identify aspects of the coursework where
students’ individual needs can be met more effectively through the
appropriate use of ICT.
Students will equally benefit from the outcome of this research work
because they will be exposed to the numerous benefits of ICT utilization in
the teaching/learning process, which could also be useful in their independent
studies (as adult learners). These benefits include, arousing their curiosity,
12
engagement in meaningful and relevant learning (through access to resource
materials), exposure to construction of knowledge, reduce the risk of failure.
They will also be exposed to numerous ways of improving their creativity,
which can also serve as useful aids to problem solving and the use of ICT
facilities for research.
The outcome of this research study will generally contribute to
improving the teaching-learning process through the utilization of relevant
ICT facilities and also bring out the benefits of ICT in enhancing effective
teaching.
Research Questions
The study was guided by the following research questions
1. To what extent were the ICT facilities available in Colleges of
Education in Cross River State for lecturers’ utilization enhanced their
effective teaching?
2. To what extent were the ICT facilities accessible in Colleges of
Education in Cross River State for lecturers utilization enhanced their
effective teaching?
3. To what extent did lecturers in Colleges of Education in Cross River
State possessed requisite skills on ICT facilities utilization for
enhancement of their effective teaching?
4. How often did lecturers in Colleges of Education in Cross River State
utilized ICT facilities in enhancing effective teaching?
13
5. To what extent did lecturers in public and private Colleges of
Education in Cross River State differ in the utilization of ICT facilities
in the enhancement of effective teaching?
Hypotheses
This study was guided by the following hypotheses, all of which will be
tested at .05 level of significance.
1. There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of lecturers in
Colleges of Education in Cross River State on the availability of ICT
facilities for effective teaching.
2. There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of lecturers in
Colleges of Education in Cross River State on accessibility to ICT
facilities for effective teaching.
3. There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of lecturers in
Colleges of Education in Cross River State on requisite skills of
lecturers on ICT facilities utilization for effective teaching.
4. There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of lecturers in
Colleges of Education in Cross River State on how often they utilized
ICT facilities for effective teaching.
5. There is no significant difference in the mean rating of lecturers in
public and private Colleges of Education in Cross River State on the
utilization of ICT facilities in enhancing effective teaching.
14
Scope of the Study
This research work studied the utilization of information and
communication technology (ICT) in enhancing effective teaching in Colleges
of Education in Cross River State. The study will involve only lecturers in the
four colleges of education in Cross River State. The colleges are: – Federal
College of Education, Obudu, Cross River State College of Education,
Akamkpa, Elder Oyama Memorial College of Education, Obubra (Private),
Steady-Flow College of Education, Akparabong – Ikom (Private).The study
will specifically be directed at determining which of the ICT facilities are
available in the colleges, the requisite skills of lecturers on ICT utilization,
extent to which lecturers use ICT facilities for their teaching and which of
the ICT facilities are commonly used.
15

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