A Critical Evaluation of Multimedia and Traditional Instructional Strategy and Its Influence on Pupils’ Performance in Primary Schools (a Case Study of Primary Schools in Delta State)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background of the study

          The primary goal of education at all levels is to develop students into useful and productive members of society (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). Teachers should use instructional techniques that can effectively convey knowledge to learners in order to get the greatest results possible in the teaching process. In contrast to learner-centered tactics, many teachers have traditionally used teacher-centered ways to convey knowledge to students. In the realm of educational research, various issues about the influence of teaching practices on learners have been raised to date. Teaching and learning research attempts to determine how different instructional tactics promote student learning performance. There are better ways to convey information to learners than traditional procedures, according to (Wood and Gentile, 2003). Teachers have continued to exhibit some comprehension of how students acquire knowledge. Many knowledge transmission procedures have been demonstrated to be unsuccessful in terms of the learner’s capacity to remember key concepts (Adunola, 2011). Some techniques of imparting knowledge to students are more passive than active. Lecture and recitation are old-fashioned practices that do not develop collaborative problem solving, critical and creative thinking (Blair, Schwartz, Biswas, & Leelawong, 2007). As a result, modern instructors have advocated for the use of constructivist and participatory educational methods in classrooms (Pirker & Gütl, 2015). As a result, teachers should not only teach how to recite, but also how to solve issues and apply the principles they have learned. Etobro and Fabinu (2017) proposed making the content of senior high school biology curriculum more current, useful, and exciting for students to achieve this. As a result, it is advised that students visualize concepts and processes as part of an educational technique supplemented by computer-based multimedia instructions. Depending on the multimedia aspect employed, the term multimedia has been defined in a variety of ways. Multimedia, for example, is described by Mayer (2000) as the presentation of learning media employing both graphical and verbal forms such as spoken and written materials. Multimedia, according to Khasawneh (2009), is the “design, implementation, modification, storage, and effective distribution of diverse sorts of material to interested viewers.” Multimedia, according to Mukherjee (2018), should be interactive and controlled by the user by that way would help learning outcome to be met and improve learner’s academic achievement.

1.2 Statement of the problem

            Humankind has been the subject of a rapid transformation he has never seen or experienced before. High-tech and its impact in society are most likely the most effective factors in this process. The growth and generality of technology has had an impact on educational institutions, and a need to raise technology-user persons for a variety of areas, with industry at the forefront, has evolved, particularly during the teaching and learning process in many fields (Akpinar, 2003).

After the 1980s, it was also seen that growing the usage of hardware and software in the field of education had a favorable impact on the learning environment (Akkoyunlu, 1995). In this regard, with the increased use of computer equipment and software after the 1980s, educational settings have also evolved. According to Dwyer (1993, translated by eliköz, 1998), secondary school pupils can get knowledge and information that would be hard to obtain in traditional ways, as well as the possibility to develop their own goods using multimedia techniques. As a consequence, it is possible to conclude that the usage of multimedia has the goal of assisting secondary school students with a variety of talents and learning styles. However there is a gap on and scanty lietrature on how traditional and multimedia instructional strategy can influence academic achievement in primary schools. This in a bid to fill this gap, the researcher seeks to examine  multimedia and traditional instructional strategy and its influence on pupils’ performance in primary schools.

1.2          Objective of the study

          The broad objective of this study is to present an evaluation of multimedia and traditional instructional strategies and its influence on pupils’ performance in primary schools using Delta State as case Stuy: Specifically, the sudy seeks to:

  1. To examine the importance of instructional strategies in teaching-learning process
  2. To explore the views of teachers on traditional instructional strategies and how it affect pupil’s performance performance.
  3. To explore the views of teachers on multimedia instructional strategies and how it affect pupil’s performance performance.
  4. Assess if there are challenges encountered when both traditional and multimedia method are employed during teaching-learning process using quality instructional materials.

1.3          Research Question

  1. What the importance of instructional strategies in teaching-learning process?
  2. What are the views of teachers on  traditional instructional strategies and how it affect pupil’s performance performance?
  3. What are the views of teachers on multimedia instructional strategies and how it affect pupil’s performance performance?
  4. Are  there  challenges encountered when both traditional and multimedia method are employed during teaching-learning process using quality instructional materials?

1.4          Significance of the study

Findings from the study will be beneficial to government, curriculum planners and school administrators. This study intended to find the impact of inadequate instructional materials in primary schools in Delta State. The knowledge obtained would help the government most especially local government and educators to reflect and make evaluation on the requirements of other instructional materials apart from class-rooms alone and on the need to make provisions for multimedia equipmen in consonant with technology driven age. The evaluation of instructional materials, along with other reform movements, allows educators and planners to plan for appropriate environment for teaching and learning so as to provide quality secondary school education. Empirically, findings from the study will add to the body of existing  literature and serve as a reference material to both student and scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.

1.5          Scope of the study

            The broad objective of this study is to present an evaluation of multimedia and traditional instructional strategies and its influence on pupils’ performance in primary schools using Delta State as case Study: Specifically, the sudy seeks to:

  1. To examine the importance of instructional strategies in teaching-learning process
  2. To explore the views of teachers on traditional instructional strategies and how it affect pupil’s performance performance.
  3. To explore the views of teachers on multimedia instructional strategies and how it affect pupil’s performance performance.

Assess if there are challenges encountered when both traditional and multimedia method are employed during teaching-learning process using quality instructional materials.

1.7 Limitation of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited  as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other corporate organizations. However, despite the constraint  encountered during the  research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.

1.8       Definition of terms

Instruction materials: Instruction materials are facilities given to students, so that they can use every opportunity to develop full potential. Instructional materials include fixtures, equipment, and buildings necessary for the effective and efficient operation of the program of public education (uslegal.com, 2015).

Academic performance: Academic performance refers to the level at which a student, teacher or institution has managed to reach their educational goals.

REFERENCE

Adunola, O. (2011), “The impact of teachers, teaching methods on the academic performance of primary school pupils in web ode local area of organization state,” Ego Booster Books, Ogun state, Nigeri

Blair, K, Schwartz, D. L. Biswas, G. & Leelawong, K. (2007).Pedagogical agents for learning by teaching. Teachable agents. Educational Technology, 47 (1) 56-61.

Etobro, B.A., & Fabinu, E. O. (2017). Students’ perceptions of difficult concepts in Biology in senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Global Journal of Educational Research, 16, 139-147, ISSN 1596-6224. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjedr.v16i2.8

Mayer, R. E. (2005). Cognitive theory of multimedia learning. In R.E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mukherjee, S. (2018). Role of multimedia in education. Edelweiss Applied Science and Technology, 2(1), 245-247. ISSN: 2576-8484. https://doi.org/10.33805/2576-8484.149.

Pirker, J., & Gütl, C. (2015). Educational gamified science simulations. In Gamification in Education and Business. Springer International Publishing. 253- 275.

Tebabal, A. & Kahssay, G. (2011).“The effects of student centered approach in improving students’ graphical interpretation skills and conceptual understanding of kinematical motion”, Lat. A.M.J Phy.Edu, 5 (2) 374.

Wood, W.B & Gentile, J.M., (2003).Teaching in a Research Context Science 302: 1510.

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