CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Adult education, in all of its manifestations, encompasses all types of education, including formal, non-formal, and informal education for adult. It may be thought of as a nexus of activities aimed at satisfying certain community needs as   Its ultimate objective is to create a process through which members of a community may learn to collaborate in order to identify issues and find solutions to them. Adult education, according to Fletcher (1980), is a dedication to the education and leisure of people of all ages via local engagement in priority setting, resource sharing, and situation analysis.   This is why Merini, (1985)” believe that its duty extends beyond the more traditional concept of educating children to a larger concept of recognizing a community’s needs, problems, and goals, as well as developing facilities and programs for the community’s overall betterment. Adult education encourages educational services to be extended to atypical students. This implies that it encourages the expansion of possibilities for young people and adults to continue their education and training after completing or withdrawing from full-time programs. It emphasizes flexibility above the traditional method of educational offering. Individuals can upgrade, retrain, or gain expertise in a certain occupation or specialty by taking advantage of such opportunities. This explains why adult education is frequently delivered through specific schools, institutions, or organizations that support flexible educational techniques. Adult education encompasses a wide range of educational options that accommodate scheduled programs, generally for adults, but also for school-aged children who have dropped out of the official school system. The primary advantage of this type of educational alternative is that it tends to balance out the imbalances caused by the formal provision’s singularity. For example, the formal school system excludes a large spectrum of individuals from its services, including farmers, businessmen, dealers, craftsmen, and apprentices. Adult education also takes into account informal education, which is a continuous process in which people learn attitudes, beliefs, skills, and information through their everyday experiences, influences, and resources (Anyanwu, 1985).

The first big move toward mass education in the north was taken in the late 1940s to early 1950s with the founding of the Northern Regional Literacy Agency (NORLA), which had its headquarters in Zaria. The Agency’s major goals were to improve the literacy rate of the northern Nigerian population, therefore it began with an aggressive anti-illiteracy campaign (Dukku and Jagaba 1994)) The Agency acted as a planning and material development resource center. The regional administration, led by the late premier, Alhaji sir Ahmadu Bello, the Sardauna of Sokoto, who was personally at the forefront of the campaigners, provided active support and collaboration. His ministers, provincial commissioners, and Emirs, as well as chiefs, kept a close eye on him. The Northern Regional Literacy Agency (NORLA) educated chosen employees as public enlightenment campaigners and placed them in different key areas around the region as part of its efforts. It also developed basic literacy and material resources in former northern Nigeria, including as primers for adult literacy delivery (Yahaya 1994).

1.2 Statement of Problem

The federal, State, and Local governments in Nigeria have at one time entrusted the duty of educating and fighting against illiteracy to several organizations, such as the National Commission for Mass Literacy. Adult and non-formal education, state education ministries, mass literacy agencies, and non-governmental organizations (NGO). This is because adult education was pushed to the background in favor of universal primary education (UPE), which cost astronomically high sums of money and had few results (Yahaya 1994). Thus, in Kano state, the Peoples Redemption Party (PRP) administration, with its redemption doctrine, operated as a messiah in 1976. The new administration created a high-powered group to work out the method to save adult education from near-total collapse after reviewing the failures and crimes perpetrated against adult literacy. However, many academics believe that since the Agency’s engagement in Adult Literacy, they have not played a substantial role because of challenges hampering the Agency’s attempts to carry out its programs, notably in Northern Nigeria. Thus is it upon this premise that this study seeks to present a critical investigation of agency for mass education and their role in promoting adult education in Nigeria using Kaduna State as case study.

1.3 Objective  of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to present a critical investigation of agency for mass education and their role in promoting adult education in Nigeria using Kaduna State as case study. Specifically the study seeks to:

  1. To determine the extent at which non-governmental agencies have promoted adult education in Kaduna Metropolis
  2. To examine role of Non governmental Agencies in promoting Adult education programmes.
  3. To ascertain the problems affecting the Agency in its attempts to discharging its programmes.
  4. To investigate the possible solution to ameliorating the problems.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the extent at which non-governmental agencies have promoted adult education in Kaduna Metropolis?
  2. What is the role of Non governmental Agencies in promoting  Adult education programme?
  3. What are the problems affecting the Agency in its attempts to discharging its programmes?
  4. What are the possible solution to ameliorating the problems?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The significance of any study among other thing is the provision or extension of knowledge and offer suggestions on the way to better management of the affairs of Non Governmental Agencies involvement in Adult Education Programme.It will revisit the importance of engaging agencies of mass education into adult literacy programme. In order to provide opportunity for adult education.Empirically, the study will contribute to the general body of knowledge and serve as a reference material to both scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to present a critical investigation of agency for mass education and their role in promoting adult education in Nigeria using Kaduna State as case study. The study will examine the extent at which non-governmental agencies have promoted adult education. It examined role of Non governmental Agencies in promoting  Adult education programmes. It ascertain the problems affecting the Agency in its attempts to discharging its programmes. It investigated the possible solution to ameliorating the problems. The study is however delimited to

1.7 Limitation of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited  as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other corporate organizations. However, despite the constraint  encountered during the  research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.

1.8 Definition of Terms

Agency: A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an organization that is, generally, formed independent from government.

Adult Education: Adult education, distinct from child education, is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained self-educating activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values.

Mass Education: Mass education has thus been a significant ally in helping to decrease sickness and mortality and so to raise the vitality and working efficiency of the population.

REFERENCE

Anyanwu C.N “Non-Governmental organization and Mass Education in Nigeria” Tahir G. (ed) Contemporary issues in Nigeria Mass Education. Damisa new day publishers Nig. Ltd. Yola.

Dukku M.G. and Jagaba M.M. (1994).”Financing Mass Education in M: Tahir G. (ed) Contemporary issues in Nigerian Mass Education. Contemporary issues in Nigerian Mass Education Yola. Damisa printers Nigeria ltd.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (1981)”National policy on Education” Pub. Nigeria Ltd.

Indabawa S.A (1994) “State Agencies and Mass Education Campaign” in Tahir G. (ed) Contemporary issues in Nigeria Mass Education. New Day Pub.Nig. Ltd. Yola.

Merini J.I, (1985)”The National Policy on Adult and NonFormal Education and In-s Professional Renewal of Educators” C.Q.N Workshop, Nsukka.

Tahir G., (1994)”Planning and Financing the 1982 Literacy Campaign” in Tahir G. (ed) Contemporary Issues in Nigerian Mass Education new day pub. Nig. Ltd. Yola.

Yahaya M.A. (1994)”Managing State Agencies for M Education” in Tahir G. (ed). Contemporary Issues in Nigerian Mass Education. Damisa New Day Pub.Nig. Ltd. Yola.

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