CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Parents plays a critical role in the educational improvement of their ward. As a result, the socioeconomic level of parents affects children’s educational development and achievement negative or positive. In same manner, parents engagement in their children’s education is extremely pivotal to the academic success of the youngsters(Barbarin, 2008). Similarly, teachers plays a significant on the academic development of youngsters as they provide them educational capitals such as qualifications, expertise, and appropriate skill sets to boosting medical conditions, securing steady jobs, increasing earnings, allocating resources properly to maximize output, contributing to the nation in terms of taxes, and improving the individual’s quality of life(Onijingin, 2013). Although the Nigeria government provide the infrastructure, regulations, and human resources necessary to guarantee that students receive the greatest possible education, so as to reduce the rate of poverty, the observation of Berzin, (2010), entails that the country still has very poor educational achievement, particularly at the secondary and higher levels. However, the factors contributing to this educational menace is not limited to nation elements but students home environment. According to Adekeye (2002), the home environment is the fundamental socialization agent that impacts a child’s interest in education and life aspirations. The experiences a youngster takes from home to school can either encourage or detract the experiences he or she has at school. In a society settings, family is a significant element in a child’s personality development. The child grows socialized as an individual as a result of regular interaction with family members, and experiences certain needs manifested in behavior patterns in school (Azi, 2016).

In addition, low-income families typically struggle to provide academic assistance to their children. These families, unlike affluent families, cannot afford to pay for learning materials,(Pemberton and Miller, 2015).  In same manner, Berzin (2010) found that children of high-income parents are more involved in education, thrive in their academic careers, and are frequently more relevant in society. With adequate care, tutelage, and active participation of parents in the child’s educational activities such as homework monitoring, participation in extracurricular activities, parent-teacher association, and other school-related activities, the child is more likely to be courageous and, as a result, do well in school. Family social class, level of education, material deprivation, psycho-social health, parenting status, and family ethnicity all have a substantial impact on the extent and manner of parental participation in their children’s academics(Berzin, 2010). Parents that are more active in their children’s education learn about school goals and processes. According to Mayer(2012)  observation, children of wealthy parents are more likely to succeed in life than children of poor parents, most likely because wealthy parents spend more money on their children than poor parents, and these “investments” result in better outcomes for their children.

When parents are financially capacitated and also give moral support to the children by guiding their reading at home, the students perform better than their counterparts. Although it has been argued that the most accurate predictor of students’ achievement is the extent to which the family is involved in the child’s education and not the family‘s level of income (Adekeye, 2002).

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Bad performance and low academic rates, according to Adekeye (2002), are often related with unemployment, low incomes, poor health, and persistent poverty. It is also a severe impediment to development. Despite the government’s investment in basic education for her school-age children, continuous poor performance in secondary school assessments heralds doom for disadvantaged regions since it has intergenerational effects.

Those that perform badly miss out on possibilities for self-advancement and community development, which discourages interested parties from supporting education(Osakinle, 2013). Evidences has demonstrated that there are various inequalities among secondary school students that impact their academic success. Payment of school fees is one of these variances; some students are able to pay fees on time, whilst others are frequently sent out owing to non-payment of school fees(Osakinle, 2013). Furthermore, some children face difficulties in obtaining uniforms and other essentials, but their parents inspire their wealthy peers by providing basic and educational resources. The disparity in student performance and academic achievement is a major cause of concern and dissatisfaction for both parents, school administrators, policymakers, and the different governments responsible for secondary school education (Alokan, Osakinle, & Onijingin, 2013). Thus, this study will examine the effect of parental level of income on the academic performance of junior secondary students in Bayelsa State.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The major aim of this study is to examine the effect of parental level of income on the academic performance of junior high school students in Bayelsa State. Below are the specific objectives of this study:

  1. Ascertain whether parental level of income influences students’ interests and attitudes towards academic activities.
  2. Determine whether the level of parents’ income affects the participation of students in academic activities.
  3. Investigate whether parents’ level of income affects the academic attainment of junior secondary school students.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

H01: Parental level of income does not influence students’ interests and attitudes towards academic activities.

H02: The level of parents’ income does not affect the engagement of students in academic activities.

H03: Parents’ level of income does not affect the academic attainment of junior secondary school students.

1.5 Significant Of The Study

This research work is relevant as it will expose the need for poverty alleviation in the country and heighten awareness about the threats of a poor level of parents’ income to the academic performance of secondary school students.

The knowledge gained in this study will help us to know the extent of the damage poor income levels cause to the educational development of youngsters and ways through which the anomaly can be ameliorated.

At the end of the findings of this work, the recommendations proffered will be of great use to the government if implemented.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to the effect of parental level of income on the academic performance of junior high school students in Bayelsa State.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

The general focus of this study is on the effect of parental level of income on the academic performance of junior high school students. The study is narrowed to ascertaining whether parental level of income influences students’ interests and attitudes towards academic activities, whether the level of parents’ income affects the participation of students in academic activities, and whether parents’ level of income affects the academic attainment of junior secondary school students. Thus, respondents for this study will be obtained from selected junior secondary schools in Bayelsa State.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

Parental income: This implies the financial value accessible by a parent.

Academic Performance: This is the extent to which a student has attained their short or long-term educational goals.

REFERENCES

Adekeye, A. (2002). Teaching social studies in Nigerian colleges, Ile-Ife press.

Ahmar, F., & Anwar, E. (2013).Socio-economic status and its relation to academicachievement of higher secondary school students. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 13(16), 13-20.

Aikens, N. L., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Socioeconomic differences in reading trajectories: The contribution of family, neighborhood, and school contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 235.

Alokan, F. B., Osakinle, E. O., & Onijingin, E. O. (2013).The influence of parents‟educational background and study facilities on academic performance among secondary school students. Ozean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2), 27-33.

Berzin, S. C. (2010). Educational aspirations among low-income youths: Examining multiple conceptual models. Children & Schools, 32(2), 112-124.

Boit, J. M. (2015). Socio-Economic Distribution and Higher Education Participation of Students in Kenya. International Journal of Education, 7(3), 49-65.

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