CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Alcohol has been consumed for thousands of years. Drinking alcoholic drinks is a typical component of social functions in many regions of the world. Adelekan, Abiodun, Imouokhom-Obayan, & Ogunremi (1996) noted that while alcohol use is strongly established in many communities, recent years have seen global shifts in drinking patterns: rates of consumption, excessive drinking among the general population, and high episodic drinking among young people are all on the rise in many nations (Schinke, Schwinn, Cole 2006). Nonetheless, alcohol intake poses a risk of negative health and societal effects due to its intoxicating, poisonous, and dependence-producing qualities. Intoxication (drunkenness), dependency (habitual, compulsive, and long-term drinking), and other biochemical impacts of alcohol intake have health and societal ramifications (Gureje 1995). Aside from chronic illnesses that may plague heavy drinkers after many years of heavy usage, alcohol leads to traumatic events that kill or cripple one at a very early age, resulting in the loss of many years of life to death or disability.

Gureje (1995) defined alcohol as a colorless flammable liquid found in wine, beer, spirits, and other beverages as a byproduct of yeast, sugars, and starch fermentation. It has also been described as a substance with a central nervous system depressive effect. It is mostly processed by the liver via biochemical processes. Eze, Njoku, Eseadi, Akubue, Ezeanwu, Ugwu, et al.(2017) noticed that the physical and societal repercussions of alcohol misuse are quite concerning. It includes a wide range of clinical and psychological effects such as intoxication, dependency, and a greater risk of physical damage to the individual and other members of society, disturbance of family life, mental disorders, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, alcohol consumption has been related to a variety of medical disorders that impact many systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and endocrine (particularly diabetic) systems.

According to (Gureje 1995), alcohol is responsible for about a high number of fatalities in Nigeria each year. In men, injuries was blamed for 24% of these fatalities, followed by malignancies, and digestive illnesses. The leading cause of alcohol-related mortality among females was cardiovascular disease, followed by cancer, and injuries. There is now conclusive evidence that alcohol causes malignancies of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, bowel (in males), and breast cancer in women. There is additional evidence that drinking raises the risk of colon cancer in women and liver cancer in males.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

According to (Schinke, Schwinn, Cole 2006), global alcohol consumption has grown in recent decades, with emerging nations accounting for all or the majority of that growth. In the early 90’s, alcohol was responsible for a minute percentage of all fatalities among young people throughout the world. According to the Global Burden of Disease Study, alcohol was responsible for a minute percent of all disability-adjusted life years in 1990. In Edwards, Anderson, Babor, Casswell, Ferrence (1994), For many years, the abuse of psychoactive substances, particularly alcohol, has been a growing health and social concern in Nigeria. This is especially true during the important adolescent years, which is characterized by several changes, including the psychological phenomena of experimenting (Adelekan et.al 1996). Teenagers have been recognized as a prominent group involved in alcohol usage in studies conducted in Nigeria over the previous decade. This study seeks to examine how prevalent alcoholism is among secondary school students in Nigeria.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to assess the prevalence and effects of alcoholism among secondary school students. Other objectives of this study are:

  1. To examine the level of frequency of alcohol consumption among secondary school students in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the effect of alcoholism on the academic performance of secondary school students.

iii.      To examine the effects of alcoholism on the health of secondary school students

  1. To examine the impact of alcohol on the behavioral pattern of secondary school students.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. How frequent is alcohol consumed among secondary school students in Nigeria?
  2. What are the effects of alcoholism on the academic performance of secondary school students?

iii.      What are the effects of alcoholism on the health of secondary school students?

  1. What are the impact of alcohol on the behavioral pattern of secondary school students?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be of great benefit to educators and school administrators as the findings of this study will reveal the frequency of alcohol consumption among secondary school students in Nigeria hence, they will be able to put in place measures that will successfully tackle the rise in alcohol uptake among secondary school students in Nigeria. This study will also be of great significance to secondary school students as they will be able to see the effects of alcohol on their academics, health and behavioral pattern.

Finally, this study will be of great importance to the scholars as this work will serve as an existing material for further studies and future reference.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study will be focused on the assessment of the prevalence and effects of alcoholism among secondary school students. This study will also look at the effects alcohol has on the academic performance, health and behavioral pattern of secondary school students.

Teachers and students of Okpanam High School, Delta State will serve as enrolled participants for this study.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will be limited to the assessment of the prevalence and effects of alcoholism among secondary school students. This study will also be limited to the effects alcohol has on the academic performance, health and behavioral pattern of secondary school students.

Teachers and students of Okpanam High School, Delta State will serve as enrolled participants for this study. This will serve as a limitation to this study as the research results covered a very tiny part of Delta state, and as such if this result is to be used any where else, further research is to be carried out.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Assessment: the action of assessing someone or something

Prevalence: the fact or condition of being prevalent; commonness.

Alcoholism: addiction to the consumption of alcoholic drink; alcohol dependency.

 

REFERENCES

Adelekan ML, Abiodun OA, Imouokhom-Obayan OA, Ogunremi OOPsychosocial correlates of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: findings from a Nigerian university. Drug and alcohol dependence 1993, 33:247-256.

Edwards G, Anderson P, Babor TF, Casswell S, Ferrence R: Alcohol policy and the public good Oxford, Oxford University Press; 1994.

Eze NM, Njoku HA, Eseadi C, Akubue BN, Ezeanwu AB, Ugwu UC, et al.(2017) Alcohol consumption and awareness of its effects on health among secondary school students in Nigeria. Medicine (Baltimore)

Gureje O: Country profile on alcohol in Nigeria. In Alcohol and public health in 8 developing countries. Edited by: Riley L, Marshall M. Geneva, World Health Organization; 1999:5-114. 5.

Osei-Bonsu E, Appiah PK, Norman ID, Asalu GA, Kweku M, Ahiabor SY, et al. (2017) Prevalence of alcohol consumption and factors influencing alcohol use among the youth in Tokorni-Hohoe, Volta region of Ghana. Science Journal of Public Health.

Schinke S, Schwinn T, Cole K.(2006) Preventing alcohol abuse among early adolescents through family and computer‑based interventions: Four‑year outcomes and mediating variables. J Dev Phys Disabil ;

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