1.1 Background of the study
Conflict resolution tactics are methods for resolving disagreements. They enable school principals to resolve conflict by involving teachers who are affected by the conflict in order for them to change their perspectives, gain from the conflict, and be more effective in their classroom communication, classroom discipline, and supervision of students’ academic activities. The cause identification approach and the integration strategy of conflict resolution were used in this research, and their association with teacher job performance was explored. A cause identification method is a conflict resolution technique that stresses the identification of the dispute’s underlying cause. According to Mamoria and Gankar (2007), this method is crucial because it leads to the discovery of the basis of the problem, which makes it easier to find a solution that is acceptable to all sides. Integration strategy, on the other hand, is a conflict-resolution mechanism that prioritizes the absorption of competing parties’ conflict-related concepts in order to promote the respect of conflicting parties’ interests while resolving the dispute. Integration technique, according to McGee and DeBernardo (1999), is the best because integrating opposing parties’ thoughts about the dispute helps them grasp the circumstances they are in and prepares them for effective involvement in resolving the conflict.
The efficiency of instructors in supporting teaching-learning processes helps the school accomplish its objectives. Teachers’ job effectiveness, as defined above, relates to their capacity to arrange their job processes and professionalism in a way that allows them to do more work and provide the anticipated outcomes in terms of classroom teaching, classroom discipline, and academic activity supervision (Eric, 2015). In the classroom, effective instructors communicate effectively and encourage students to participate in the learning process. They maintain classroom discipline by monitoring and conducting roll-call on a regular basis, arriving on time to class, and providing suitable reprimands to pupils who display antisocial or learning behavior. They also oversee students’ academic activity by watching them in class, leading them through project work, and grading and marking their notes. Conflict, which is clearly associated with human relationships in every organization, may arise in the middle of these activities. As members strive to achieve the goals and objectives of education, conflict arises between members (students, staff, management, and the community) and across the organization, resulting in student/student conflict, student/staff conflict, staff/staff conflict, principal/staff conflict, and school/community conflict. Variables such as principals’ leadership styles, change management methods, and conflict resolution tactics may be potential sources of conflict in secondary schools, just as they are in any other organization, and they may have a substantial impact on teachers’ work performance. Poor acknowledgement of teachers’ autonomy, lack of impartiality, insufficient flow of information, and perception of problems of interest are causative agents of school-based conflict, according to Bartol and Martine in Uchendu, Anijaobi-Idem, and Odigwe (2014). Teachers cannot actively contribute to the teaching-learning process, which is important to the provision and realization of high-quality education and educational objectives as outlined in the Nigerian National Policy on Education. This results in increased student loitering, increased classroom noise, poor evaluation of students’ class work, and a delay in the submission of students’ assessment scores to the appropriate authorities. These issues, which contribute to poor teacher performance, might be caused by a variety of factors, including inefficient conflict resolution tactics used by administrators. If such arguments are not settled peacefully, the educational system may be disrupted, and teachers’ work performance may suffer. Only happy and emotionally content instructors, to a large part, exhibit a positive attitude that helps pupils attain academic success and educational objectives. As a result, conflict resolution entails resolving conflicts in ways that address the root causes of the issues, with just and acceptable resolutions for all parties involved (Burton in Cunningham, 1998). Internal mechanisms that enable various authorities to get to the root of problems in order to resolve conflict in a way that is acceptable to the conflicting parties are known as conflict resolution strategies (Adeyemi and Ademilua, 2012). If a conflict is properly resolved, it leads to a harmonious working relationship between teachers and other staff members; otherwise, it leads to disunity among them. As a result, the focus of this research is on principals’ conflict resolution practices in relation to teacher effectiveness.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Problems with teacher efficacy in Abia State’s schools have piqued everyone’s interest. According to research, the State’s educational system is plagued by issues such as ineffective classroom teaching processes, poor classroom discipline, ineffective classroom supervision, ineffective communication between teachers, students, and parents, poor assessment and evaluation of students’ learning, delayed distribution of results, and so on. Despite the government’s attempts to boost teachers’ take-home compensation and school principals’ professional development, teachers’ work effectiveness remains low. This ineffectiveness among instructors encourages students to linger during class and leads to a lack of coordination of co-curricular activities. It results in low academic achievement, as shown by internal and external examination results. The government’s monetary and non-monetary incentives have failed to improve teachers’ work performance in Abia State schools. This is seen in the researchers’ belief that conflict exists in every institution (Uchendu, Anijaobi-Idem and Odigwe 2014). Teachers’ work performance is influenced by how school leaders manage disputes. In light of the issue of teacher ineffectiveness, it is necessary to examine the following question: How do administrators’ conflict resolution tactics connect to teachers’ job effectiveness in terms of classroom teaching, classroom discipline, and oversight of students’ academic activities? In this context, school administrators in Abia State have developed conflict resolution tactics.
1.3 Objective of the study
The primary objective of the study is as follows
1) To evaluate the causes of conflict in schools.
2) To find out the effect of conflict on the school administration.
3) To find out conflict resolution strategies that can be used to manage conflict crisis in the school.
4) To recommend probable solution on how school principals should resolve conflict among staffs in the school.
1.3 Research Questions
The following questions have been prepared for the study
- What are the causes of conflict in schools?
- What is the effect of conflict on the school administration?
- What are the conflict resolution strategies that can be used to manage conflict crisis in the school?
- What are the probable solution on how school principals should resolve conflict among staffs in the school?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The study focuses on conflict resolution strategies adopted by school principals in Abia State. Hence the study will be significant to the ministry of education as it will further train principals and teachers on how to avoid conflict and also on ways conflict can be managed.
This study will be significant for the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
1.6 Scope of the study
This study will evaluate the causes of conflict in schools. The study will also, find out the effect of conflict on the school administration. More so, the study will find out conflict resolution strategies that can be used to manage conflict crisis in the school. Lastly, the will make recommendation on the probable solution on how school principals should resolve conflict among staffs in the school. Hence the study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Abia state.
1.7 Limitation of the study
This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:
just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data
Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires
Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher
1.8 Definition of terms
Conflict resolution strategies: the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution.
Adeyemi, T. & Ademilua, S. (2012). Conflict management strategies and administrative effectiveness on Nigerian Universities. Journal of Trends in Educational Research and Policy, 3(3):368-375
Cunningham, W. (1998).Conflict resolution theory. Auckland: university of Auckland press
Eric, D. (2015). Personal job effectiveness. Retrieved from: www.denigear.com
Mamoria, C. & Gankar, S. (2007). Personnel management. Mumbai: Himalaya Publishers.
McGee, J., & DeBernardo, C. (1999). The classroom avenger: A behavioural profile of school based. Retrieved from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/../pdf
Uchendu, C. Anijaobi-idem, F. & Odigwe, F. (2014).Conflict management and organizational performance in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Research Journal in Engineering and Applied Science,2(2):67-71.