An Examination of Academic Performance of Married Women Students in Nigerian Higher Education
1.1 Background of the study
The world’s population is projected to be 6.8 billion people (Population Reference Bureau, 2010). Women account for more than half of this total and account for more than 70% of the total.They are uneducated and impoverished (Haese & Kirsten, 2006). Those obtaining education at different levels, particularly at the higher level, are restricted or handicapped.in a variety of ways, putting good academic achievement out of reach for many.Numerous people live in a life that is a complicated web of many roles and many duties that need the typical woman to play “various roles” at different times in order to fulfill her obligations.her family’s requirements These roles have been classified theoretically as reproductive, productive, and communal roles (Bakare-Yusuf, 2003, Haese & Kirsten, 2006). Bakare-Yusuf, like many other feminist academics, contends that women, both now and in the future, must be empowered.in the past, had critical reproductive and producing responsibilities that aided patriarchal economic as well as productive domination Women’s roles are evolving all across the globe, but not always for the better. The most visible example of this is their contribution to economic development, but due to limitations resulting from stagnancy or little progress being made in women’s education, that is, enrolment rate and academic performance in tertiary institutions of learning, women, and particularly married women, have yet to achieve self-fulfilment and achieve in all aspects of life. In this respect, Ossat (2005) sees higher education for women as both an accomplishment and a challenge. The federal government of Nigeria, in collaboration with UNICEF, released the results of a study of the condition of women and children in Nigeria in May 2002. Education and women’s development were two major topics on which the spotlight was shone, and they were vigorously debated. Both are seen to be inseparable and complimentary. A separate research done in South Africa found that higher education – of any kind, including women – has been under significant pressure to be more responsive to the marketplace and to create new types of knowledge workers (Jansen, 2001). Women work at home, but the majority of them are not compensated for their efforts. Furthermore, since they are underpaid in their different occupations, Nigerian women are among the poorest in Africa and the developing world. They are also less empowered, making it harder for them to fulfill their duties and roles at home (Potokri, 2010), in the workplace, and in society as a whole efficiently and effectively due to the poorly linked variables: women, education, and development. To be more specific, higher education for a married woman cannot be overlooked, quantified, or overstated. Given its importance, no African country, arguably, does not want to increase the educational participation of women in tertiary institutions of learning, or, better yet, improve their academic performance. Higher education for women is important, and it cannot be overstated. Although most nations regard higher education for women to be a desired development tool, its present under-provision is a significant impediment to economic, social, mental, and political growth. As a result, low female participation and enrolment in higher education have been associated with low economic productivity, the prevalence of preventable diseases, malnutrition, population growth, and mass poverty (Bolarin, 2005). Similarly, Dike (2002) finds that more education provides women a better understanding of how to minimize hazards in life and alter their behavior. Several studies have documented the numerous barriers to women’s participation, enrollment, and academic performance, as well as their completion of their education (Howard, 2001; Jamil, 2003). These impediments stem from policy, infrastructure, household and family resources, and community beliefs and practices. According to Jamil (2003), many significant obstacles to women’s education are not legally within the boundaries or obligation of the government or the education sector. Household conditions and community attitudes and practices are examples of barriers that may not be addressed by government leadership and action yet have a significant impact on women’s education. He goes on to say that the connection is indirect and susceptible to influence rather than control. However, although policy, school-related infrastructure, and education and instruction may be difficult to alter, they are under the mandate and organizational authority of the government (Jamil, 2003; USAID, 2000). Supporting Jamil’s viewpoint, Administrator J Brandy stated at the USAID Symposium on Girls Education (2000): “It is obvious to say that these barriers affect female students enrolment and completion rates; and each is related to the others, constituting parts of an interlocking social system that includes national and local, private and public, and group and individual dimensions.” Lips (1999) contends that if we are to effectively address the challenges of women’s education and economic development, of educating women to assume their due position in society, a number of issues must be addressed, one of which is the importance of women’s higher education. Furthermore, she asserts that, among other things, wage equality, the “glass ceiling,” work-family balance, and the feminization of poverty must be addressed in order to promote and inspire women to seek higher education.
1.2 Statement of research problem
In Nigerian culture, marriage is a significant cultural, traditional, and religious rite.
Especially for ladies and young girls. According to data from the CBN (2000) study,
In Nigeria, 86.6 percent of women are married, 3.7 percent are widowed, and 5.2 percent are divorced.% of the population is divorced or separated. Furthermore, cultural behaviors separate a large number of people. women with advanced degrees A common saying in Nigeria is that “women’s education stops in the kitchen,” indicating that education is not beneficial to them; in other words, education is not intended for them. When they marry, their condition worsens. Women’s prospects of continuing their education are very low at that time. Women, particularly married women, are confined to the kitchen in Nigeria, where their primary duty is childbirth. As a result, the Nigerian female infant is mentally programmed from infancy to see herself as a future housewife and mother of children. In a nutshell, married women are confined to the house, mainly because it is assumed that their husbands would provide all of their requirements. As a result, higher education for women is seen as ineffective and a waste of time, money, and resources in general. Furthermore, elders and traditional chiefs see it as a doorway to prostitution and non-submissiveness among women, as well as the loss of their marriage chances. To put it simply, certain traditional chiefs argue that it pushes women beyond the boundaries of tradition and culture, thus empowering them They act and live in ways that contradict established traditions, norms, and beliefs. As a result of this, it is It is often assumed that once married and living in their husband’s home, women have no rights.
They have a desire for further education and are capable of coping with any kind or style of education they have received. prior to marriage Elders and traditional leaders (male) believe that elementary and secondary education are essential. At most, education is sufficient for a married woman to manage the business of her household.anticipated from her In principle, higher education, particularly university, is a place of equal opportunity today. This was not the situation a century ago, and anybody who advocated for a university education for women, much alone married women, was considered crazy. It was generally assumed that greater education for women would result in brain fever, sterility, and even death, implying that they would be unable to deal with such studies. In light of the above, most married women made little or no attempt to enroll in higher education; this was made much more difficult for them when admission rules and procedures became more stringent. Some colleges and higher institutes of learning did not accept married women since their programs did not favor them. For instance, Ewha Women’s University in For 57 years, married female students in South Korea were barred from attending, until the restriction was recently removed. Women were first admitted to Makerere University in Uganda in 1945. One element of the Millennium Development Goals that must not be overlooked if women are to be genuinely empowered is equal educational opportunities at all levels. The Nigerian government has attempted to progress toward this objective, but cultural traditions and religion, among other things, have severely hampered its attempts. At this point, it is essential to examine not just the involvement of married women in higher education, but also how those who are studying are doing academically.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The primary objective of the study is as follows
1) To find out if married student women are sound in their academic performance
2) To find out the effect of marriage on the academic performance of married women
3) To find out the factors that affect married women student in their academic pursuit
4) To suggest possible ways to improve married women attendance of higher institution and how to improve their academic performance.
1.4 Research hypothesis
H01: marriage does not have effect on the academic performance of married women
H02: there are no factors that affect married women student in their academic pursuit
1.5 Significance of the study
The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:
l This study will examine the Academic Performance Of Married Women Students In Nigerian Higher Education
l The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, ministry of education and academia
1.6 Scope of the study
This study will examine An Examination Of Academic Performance Of Married Women Students In Nigerian Higher Education. Hence , will be delimited to married women student in south eastern part of Nigeria
1.7 Limitations of the study
This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:
just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data.
Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires.
Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher.
1.8 Operational definition of terms
Academic performance: the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects.
Married women: a wife or widow of a viscount. type of: better half, married person, mate, partner, spouse. a person’s partner in marriage
Higher institution: an educational institution of collegiate or more advanced grade.