An Investigation of Child Friendly School Environment and Social Relationship: Its Effect on Academic Achievement of Public Primary School Children

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1  Background of the study

To various individuals, a child may signify different things. A child is defined as anybody under the age of 18 years old, according to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Every child has the right to an education, since education seems to be a natural occurrence linked with human growth. This is consistent with the statement in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) that “education is a basic human right” (UNICEF, 2009).Because children are tomorrow’s leaders, the welfare of children should be a primary priority for all nations. As a result, the growth of a country is heavily reliant on its youth. It is one of the unavoidable requirements for a man to live a self-sufficient existence. “For everyone, education is ultimately the path to human development and the tools by which every man, woman, and child may fulfill his or her full potentials,” writes H. Küçüker (2012). Furthermore, J. W. Creswell (2012) said that education is the foundation for any significant and long-term growth, emphasizing the need of maintaining a constant focus on its achievement. It is also a tool for nations to accomplish socioeconomic, scientific, and technological growth.Because of its significance, many programs in education have been implemented, notably Education for All (EFA) by 2015. The UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, and the World Bank sponsored the World Conference on Education for All (EFA) in Jomtien, Thailand. This was a watershed moment in the world’s collective approach to education, expanding ideas of equity in basic education and understanding how it is delivered, with a particular emphasis on the world’s poorest people. As a result, decisions were taken to offer education to all children in order to drastically decrease adult illiteracy (UNICEF, 2000). Following up, one hundred and sixty-four (164) nations, including Nigeria, committed to achieve Education for All by 2015 at an education conference in Dakar, Senegal ( E. Godfrey 2012).

Nigeria, like many other nations, believes that education is a powerful tool for achieving national development and has encouraged active involvement from non-governmental organizations, communities, and people, as well as official action. As a result, the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004) designated education as the most effective tool for achieving national development. In order to meet the educational needs and ambitions of the people, the government, private persons, and organizations have created educational institutions at all levels. Following up, UNICEF emphasized that much has been done worldwide to offer excellent basic education for children, which is a responsibility under the Convention on the Rights of the Child (2009).

Through accommodation and inclusion, the idea of a child-friendly school environment acknowledges and fosters the fulfillment of children’s fundamental rights. N. Clair (2016,) Nigeria made efforts to establish the child friendly school initiative (CFSI) in 2000 after UNICEF (2018) recommended that early child care education be granted a child-friendly status. As a result, several schools in Nigeria have embraced it. According to D. Cross (2011), the CFSI recruited 71,040 students and 1776 class instructors from 26 states in 2001. According to the author, in Nigeria, there were 163 schools classified as child-friendly schools by 2001. UNICEF reported in 2009 that 286 elementary schools throughout the country have been designated as child-friendly. A child-friendly school is one that works in a child-friendly atmosphere.

1.2  Statement of research problem

Child Friendly School (CFS) is a democratic environment based on children’s rights, where all students are accepted, teaching-learning processes are organized according to children’s interest needs, health, safety and protective measures are taken for children and gender-based discrimination is not provided.

Parents, teachers, the government, and students in Nigeria have been concerned about the low academic achievement of public primary school pupils. The essential predictor of a country’s future well-being is high-quality elementary school education. However, according to numerous research reports, many Nigerian schools are still performing below par, with insufficient classroom space, furniture, and teaching and learning equipment, poorly motivated instructors, and the adoption of substandard teaching methods, among other issues. Some schools have students studying under the shade of trees while others learn on the floor in the classroom, there are no appropriate games or recreational facilities, and community involvement in education is restricted, among other things. It is believed that the majority of Nigerian public schools are not child-friendly. As a result, it is not favorable to the development of the necessary skills, knowledge, interest, and attitude to become responsible citizens. As a result, a child-friendly educational atmosphere is critical to finding a long-term solution to the issue. As a result, the researcher intends to provide more reliable evidence as to the functionality of child friendly schools in Nigeria, which, of course, includes social relationships and how they affect academic achievement of pupils in public primary schools in this part of the country, thus the need for this study.

1.3  Objectives of the study

The primary objective for the study is as follows

  1. To find out  the extent to which the public primary schools in Nigeria respond to diversity to ensure equal opportunity for all children.
  2. To examine the extent the public primary schools in Nigeria create environment that promote quality learning outcome.
  3. To find out the functionality of the available facilities used for child friendly teaching learning in public primary school in Nigeria.
  4. To find out  the relationship between teacher motivation and academic achievement of pupils in the public primary schools in  Nigeria.

1.4  Research hypothesis

H01:there is no relationship between child friendly school  environment and academic achievement of pupils in the public primary schools in  Nigeria.

H1: there is a relationship between child friendly school  environment and academic achievement of pupils in the public primary schools in  Nigeria.

H02:public primary schools in Nigeria do not have a child friendly school  environment

H1:public primary schools in Nigeria have a child friendly  school environment

1.5  Significance of the study

The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:

l  This study will examine  An Investigation Of Child Friendly School Environment And Social Relationship: Its Effect On Academic Achievement Of Public Primary School Children.

l  The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, ministry of education and academia.

1.6  Scope of the study

This study examines  An Investigation Of Child Friendly School Environment And Social Relationship: Its Effect On Academic Achievement Of Public Primary School Children. Hence public primary schools in Imo state will be used as a case study.

1.7  Limitations of the study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

 just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by  the researcher ,in getting relevant materials  and  in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

1.8  Operational definition of terms

Child friendly: means any behaviour, conduct, practice, process, attitude, environment or treatment that is humane, considerate and in the best interest of the child

School environment:  the set of relationships that occur among members of a school community that are determined by structural, personal, and functional factors of the educational institution, which provide distinctiveness to schools

Social relationship: the connections that exist between people who have recurring interactions that are perceived by the participants to have personal meaning.

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