Assessment of Teaching and Learning Through Infrastructure Provision in Basic Primary School in Bassa Local Government Area of Kogi State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the study

Education is a key factor in determining economic and social development, as well as family livelihoods and food security. Empirical studies have also shown that investing in elementary education boosts productivity throughout the economy considerably more than investing in other levels of education, and that the economic returns on investment in primary education are higher than those from other levels of schooling [1]. Education progress is influenced by a variety of variables, including the physical resources available to a school. The physical environment of the school, such as the grounds, buildings, furniture, and equipment, all contribute to the learning environment [2]. According to a study conducted by Ayeni and Adelabu [2], most classrooms were insufficient in terms of decency, space, ventilation, and heat insulation; incinerators and urinals were not conveniently located, and the school plant was poorly maintained; these combined deficiencies constituted a major gap in the quality of learning environment. As a result, school infrastructure management and planning denotes regional planning organizations working to enhance educational facilities in a certain area. Secondary and higher education in India has seen structural changes as a result of globalization since the 1990s [3]. Infrastructural development at the postsecondary level increased dramatically after the 1990s [4,5]. However, no major changes have been discovered in the structure and organization of the primary education system, which is similarly deficient in terms of quality. Government-run schools account for approximately 90% of primary schools in India [6]. The majority of the schools are located in rural regions and lack basic educational standards. It may be due to a lack of infrastructure, such as a shelter-less school building, inadequate space, a high pupil-teacher ratio, outdated teaching techniques, and a high absence rate. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) has emphasized decentralized education planning with an emphasis on district planning from its inception by the Government of India and state governments. It aims to reach the objective of universal primary education by 2010. SSA has resulted in a remarkable development in India’s education system at the basic level, despite a lack of resources. In Paschim Medinipur, the number of government elementary schools is the greatest (4672). In general, the current state of educational services in Paschim Medinipur reveals that educational infrastructure provision is lacking in certain areas of the province. The geographical distribution of such amenities is likewise inequitable throughout the district, with the majority of them being situated outside of metropolitan areas. As a result, there is a need to design the distribution of educational infrastructure in Paschim Medinipur and give planning and appraisal activities a high priority. So that the study’s findings may be used to improve the quality of the program’s execution in Paschim Medinipur “optimally,” rather than fragmented as it is currently.

1.2  Statement of research problem

‘Learning environment refers to the diverse physical locations, contexts, and cultures in which students learn. … Since learners must do the learning, the aim is to create a total environment for learning that optimises the ability of students to learn.However, there is a widespread notion that the state of a school’s learning environment has a significant influence on the efficacy of the elementary infrastructure, as well as kids’ academic achievement and enrollment ratio. The girl’s toilet, library, boundary wall, computer, play field, classrooms, offices, and other building structures are all required to support efficient educational growth and learning in an educational institution. Unfortunately, the majority of this infrastructure is not accessible in elementary schools. To examine the gap in educational infrastructure in the Bassa local government region of Kogi state, a thorough mapping of the available infrastructure is required. The research will go over all of this and more.

1.3  Objectives of the study

The primary objective of the study is as follows

l  To find out if there are basic infrastructure which aid teaching and learning in Bassa local government

l  To find out if teaching and learning through infrastructure contribute to the academic performance of primary school pupil in Bassa local government.

l  To find out if government have contributed to the infrastrutural development of primary schools in Bassa local government area.

l  To find out how to improve on the infrastructure of basic primary schools in Bassa local government area.

1.4  Research hypothesis

l  H0: Teaching and learning through infrastructure does not contribute to the academic performance of primary school pupil in Bassa local government.

l  H1: teaching and learning through infrastructure contribute to the academic performance of primary school pupil in Bassa local government.

l  H02:there can not be  improvement in the infrastructural development of basic primary schools in Bassa local government area.

l  H1: there can  be  improvement in the infrastructural development of basic primary schools in Bassa local government area.

1.5  Significance of the study

The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:

l  This study will examine  Assessment of teaching and learning through infrastructure provision in basic primary school in Bassa local government area of Kogi state

l  The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, ministry of education and academia.

1.6  Scope of the study

The study examines Assessment of teaching and learning through infrastructure provision in basic primary school in Bassa local government area of Kogi state. Hence basic primary schools in Bassa local government will be used as case study.

1.7  Limitations of the study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

 just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by  the researcher ,in getting relevant materials  and  in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

1.8  Operational definition of terms

Teaching: the occupation, profession, or work of a teacher.

Learning: the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught.

Infrastructure: the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities

Basic primary school:  a school usually including the first three grades of elementary school but sometimes also including kindergarten

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