Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention Strategies for Primary School Teachers.

Abstract

This study addresses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention strategies for primary school teachers. Wrong labeling of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has given rise to this paper. Hitherto not much  attention has been given to the pupils who manifest symptoms of this chronic behavioural disorder even when they are going through difficulties in the  learning process. The need for teachers’ intervention strategies has been extensively discussed in this paper with a view of developing an intervention programme in other to promote care and support for the pupils who manifest symptoms of ADHD. It is recommended among other things that Counsellors’ knowledge should be enhanced to equip them to enable them give care and support to ADHD pupils in the learning process and make referral when necessary. There is an urgent need to include in the curriculum of Guidance and Counselling in Nigeria institutions Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder its  symptoms and management strategies. Also Counselling units should be established in primary schools in line with the provisions in the National policy on Education this will reduce most of the problems ADHD pupils face during learning process.

 

CHAPTER 1

1.1          Background to the Study

It is well established that children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience difficulties in daily life functioning, including problems in school, along with a number of cognitive, social, and emotional problems that interfere with their school success. Although the majority of research on individuals with ADHD currently focuses on children (Kuriyan et al., 2013), problems associated with ADHD often worsen throughout middle school and high school, as instruction becomes more departmentalized and the organization of the school environment changes (Abramowitz & O’Leary, 1991; Kent et al., 2011). High school presents particular difficulties for these students, with teachers reporting that students with ADHD complete a lower percentage of assignments and obtain more tardies and absences than same age peers. Further, these students are eight times more likely to drop out of high school altogether (Kent et al., 2011), which results in greater consequences and costs to society as a whole. In 2007, Pelham, Foster, and Robb conducted a preliminary meta-analysis that conservatively estimated the annual cost of illness for ADHD in childhood and adolescence to be between $12,005 and $17,458 per individual and the annual societal cost of illness for ADHD in childhood and adolescence (using a 5% prevalence rate estimate) between $36 billion and $52.4 billion (in 2005 dollars).

Given the frequency, severity, and persistence of these problems throughout childhood and adolescence, it is not surprising that individuals with ADHD continue to experience educational and occupational difficulties into adulthood. For example, they are less likely to pursue education after high school (Barkley, Fischer, Smallish, & Fletcher, 2006) and those who do, complete fewer years of college than comparison groups (Barkley, Murphy, & Fischer, 2008; Mannuzza, Klein, Bessler, Malloy, & Hynes, 1997). Further, adults with ADHD often experience occupational difficulties in adulthood, including job instability, interpersonal difficulties, and lower job status (Barkley, 2006; Barkley, Murphy, & Fischer, 2008; Mannuzza et al., 1993; see review, Murphy & Barkley, 2007).

As ADHD-related difficulties are often closely associated with difficulties in school and poor life outcomes in general, it is crucial to understand how these difficulties impact school functioning, with important implication for early identification and intervention. Understanding how and why youth with ADHD exhibit difficulties that negatively impact school functioning is essential. However, little is known about the complexity of associations between ADHD symptoms (i.e., inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) and academic performance.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the term used to describe children who are inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive. ADHD, once called hyperkinesis, is one of the most common neurologic disorders during childhood and adolescence. “According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. IDSM FVl the prevalence of ADHD in school-age children is estimated between 3% and 5%, or greater than 2 million children nationwide (Buncher, 1996). The impact o f ADHD on parents and children may provide an explanation of how the quality of parenting can affect the adjustment of the child with ADHD. Understanding what it is like being the parent o f a child who throws tantrums, is full of uncontrolled activity, and does not listen or follow directions is an important aspect of determining this impact. According to Barkley (1990), parent-child relationships would influence and be affected by the structural and transactional relationship within the child’s nuclear family, extended family, and community.

Teachers are concerned why children become restless and too playful when given a task. Many of these signs may be symptoms of  ADHD, unless a proper diagnosis is made, teachers may continue to  manage the situation on their own without success. ADHD manifest in  pupils usually from two (2) years and before the age of seven. These symptoms of ADHD can linger on to adulthood. During the course o f a child’s development, parents of ADHD children may be confronted with a larger number of behavioral, developmental, and educational problems than those o f normal children. The time, demands, and energy required to cope with these difficulties may place an enormous amount o f stress on the family. In order for nursing to help these parents, an understanding of what it is like to live with a child who has ADHD is needed. The purpose of this study was to seek a fuller understanding of and to identify and describe the underlying themes of the lived experiences of a parent with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) through self reflection of their thoughts, feelings, and perceptions related to this experience.

 

1.3       Research Objectives

The aim of the study is to examine counselling children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for emotional adjustment in Primary Schools in Keffi west senatorial Zone. Nasarawa State Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Identify the issues with counselling children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for emotional adjustment in Primary Schools in Keffi west senatorial Zone. Nasarawa State Nigeria.
  2. Evaluate the role of counselling in counselling children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for emotional adjustment in Primary Schools in Keffi west senatorial Zone. Nasarawa State Nigeria
  • Assess ways of improving counselling children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for emotional adjustment in Primary Schools in Keffi west senatorial Zone. Nasarawa State Nigeria
  1. To investigate the impact of counselling on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for emotional adjustment in Primary Schools in Keffi west senatorial Zone. Nasarawa State Nigeria.

 

1.4       Research Questions

Based on the research objectives, the following research questions were formulated;

  1. What are the issues faced in counselling children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for emotional adjustment in Primary Schools in Keffi west senatorial Zone. Nasarawa State Nigeria
  2. In what ways does counselling help children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for emotional adjustment in Primary Schools in Keffi west senatorial Zone. Nasarawa State Nigeria
  • What are the ways of improving counselling children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for emotional adjustment in Primary Schools in Keffi west senatorial Zone. Nasarawa State Nigeria.
  1. the impact of counselling on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for emotional adjustment in Primary Schools in Keffi west senatorial Zone. Nasarawa State Nigeria

 

1.5       Research Hypothesis

In line with the research objective four, the following research hypothesis was formulated

HO1: Counselling does not have significant effect on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for emotional adjustment in Primary Schools in Keffi west senatorial Zone. Nasarawa State Nigeria

 

1.6       Significance of the Study

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed emotional/behavioral health disorder in children. As the rates of ADHD diagnosis rise, so will the likelihood that school counselors will be called upon to work with parents, teachers, and other educational professionals to assist children with ADHD (CWA) successfully negotiate their academic lives. The study will help school counselors to provide a myriad of resources (e.g., individual counseling, consultation services) to support teachers and students with ADHD to achieve a successful academic experience. This is because the school counselors serve as advocates for students with special needs by working with families to involve them with their children’s education and by collaborating with other educational professionals with the end goal of promoting academic achievement for all students (ASCA, 2013). School counselors are able to help all students, including students with ADHD, realize their potentials to assist them in achieving academic success, regardless of challenges they may face. The purpose of this paper is to provide resources to assist school counselors in effectively assisting students with ADHD by providing an overview of the current knowledge about ADHD as well as evidence-based training interventions for use with students with ADHD in the academic setting

 

1.7       Scope of the Study

The study will be limited to  Primary Schools in Keffi west senatorial Zone. Nasarawa State Nigeria. Nasarawa was created on 1 October 1996. The State has three National Senatorial Districts (South, North and West). Nasarawa State consists of thirteen (13) Local Government Areas. The study is limited to Keffi  Local government with a population of 92,664 (Nigerian Population Commission, 2006).

 

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A chronic condition including attention difficulty, hyperactivity and impulsiveness.

Control and Relevance of Schoolwork (CRSW): learning experiences that are either directly applicable to the personal aspirations, interests, or cultural experiences of students (personal relevance) or that are connected in some way to real-world issues, problems, and contexts (life relevance).:

Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Disruptive behavior disorders include two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Common symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors such as lying and stealing.

 

Extrinsic Motivation: Extrinsic motivation refers to behavior that is driven by external rewards. These rewards can be tangible, such as money or grades, or intangible, such as praise or fame. Unlike intrinsic motivation, which arises from within the individual, extrinsic motivation is focused purely on outside rewards.

 

Student Engagement: Student engagement occurs when “students make a psychological investment in learning. They try hard to learn what school offers. They take pride not simply in earning the formal indicators of success, but in understanding the material and incorporating or internalizing it in their live

Student Engagement Instrument: The Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) is a brief 35 item self-reporting survey measuring cognitive and affective engagement and is validated for students in primary schools.

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