Availability of Qualified Teachers in Enhancing Effective Teaching and Learning Process in Primary Schools

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of The Study

Education is the transforming stone that allows a society to progress from one level of development to the next. Realizing the importance of education, governments at all levels have launched one or more programs to address the high degree of illiteracy, overdependence, and other issues hurting the nation’s unity, consciousness, and development. Salman, Olawoye, and Yahaya, (2011). The Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE), Education for All (EFA), and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are examples of educational policies created or signed by the Nigerian government in the twentieth century (Lawal, 2007). This intended to position the country favorably among the world’s 20th largest economies by 2020, consolidate its leadership responsibilities in Africa, and enroll the country as a prominent player in the global economic and political arena. (Obong 2006).

Hence, the requirements and difficulties of any society are best met through education, whose engine room is the teachers.  According to Delvin, M., Kift, S. & Nelson, K. (2012), no educational system can outperform the caliber of its teachers.

Teachers are critical to the educational system’s performance and serve as a crucial tool for educational development. Educational facilities cannot be expanded without teachers. Without a doubt, the quality and quantity of teachers’ contribution into the system determines the success and quality of any educational system. As a result, the teacher interprets the educational aims and goals and instructs students in accordance with them. No surprise, Hammond (2000) believes that states interested in enhancing students’ academic performance should look at the preparation and qualifications of the teachers they hire and retain.

Worryingly, it has recently made public pronouncements on educational standards. Following the poor academic performance of pupils seeking admission to secondary schools, the discontent becomes increasingly visible. The point that is frequently raised is whether or not teachers in these public schools, who are the most crucial factor in the efficacy of schools and the quality of a child’s education, are competent to teach effectively. One important source of concern regarding teachers’ qualifications has been the relatively high proportion of teachers teaching subjects outside of their fields of subject matter training and certification.

Out of field teaching has been seen to vary by subject and grade level. Furthermore, teaching has been reported to occur more frequently in the classrooms of low-income learners, according to Ingersoll (2009). Many people believe that teaching is something that everyone can do if they are knowledgeable about their subjects. On the contrary, before a person can effectively teach in any class, he or she must be educated in the arts or sciences of school teaching. As a result, some argue that employing a suitable number of teachers, rather than having a well-qualified kit, cannot solve educational challenges. To be a trained and competent teacher, one must have received professional teacher training.

However, a large majority of so-called teachers lack this quality. In support of the preceding argument, it is deeply regrettable that an unqualified teacher will not only convey imperfect information and promote a low level of education, but she will also be inadequate in the use of instructional resources in the teaching. As a result, the purpose of this research is to examine the availability of trained teachers in order to improve the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process in elementary school.

1.2   Statement Of The Problem

The issue of unqualified teachers handling subjects in primary schools, in particular, has been perceived as contributing to students’ poor academic performance at school. It is one thing to be professionally trained in a particular discipline, such as social studies. It’s another thing entirely for one to be able to work in that area or in any other field(Fernandez. (2014). Experience however has shown that qualified teachers are better at teaching subjects at all levels of education.

The failure of teacher training colleges to produce qualified personnel has been acknowledged. In recent years, training have been carried out in a rushed programme, resulting in the mere awarding of certificates rather than the full acquisition of knowledge by the recipients. Adeniyi (2011) agreed, criticizing the education sector for the poor quality of its products due to the high level of honour and respect accorded to paper certificates. This characteristic has caused labour employers to lose faith in paper certificates and, as a result, to organize retraining programmes for those who secure appointments in their schools. The solutions to the aforementioned issues will undoubtedly contribute significantly to pupils’ improved academic performance in social education. Keeping in mind that the success of any subject is dependent on the quality of teachers and the effective use of instructional materials.

1.3     Objectives Of The Study

This study was carried out specifically to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Ascertain the relationship between pupils’ performance and teachers’ qualifications.
  2. Ascertain the impact of teachers’ qualifications on pupils’ performance in primary schools.
  3. Investigate the availability of qualified teachers in public primary schools.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

A hypothesis refers to an experimental statement, tentative in nature, showing the relationship between two or more variables. It is open to test and can be accepted or rejected depending on whether it agrees or disagrees with the statistical test.

The two hypotheses that were tested in this study are the null and alternative hypotheses.

The null hypothesis reflects that there will be no observed effect in our experiment. In a mathematical formulation of the null hypothesis, there will typically be an equal sign. This hypothesis is denoted by H0. The null hypothesis is what we attempt to find evidence against in our hypothesis test.

The alternative or experimental hypothesis reflects that there will be an observed effect on our experiment. In a mathematical formulation of the alternative hypothesis, there will typically be an inequality, or not equal to the symbol. This hypothesis is denoted by either Ha or by H1. The alternative hypothesis is what we are attempting to demonstrate in an indirect way through the use of our hypothesis test. If the null hypothesis is rejected, then we accept the alternative hypothesis. If the null hypothesis is not rejected, then we do not accept the alternative hypothesis.

The study will test the validity of the following null hypothesis:

H01: There is no significant relationship between pupils’ performance and teachers’ qualifications.

H02: Teachers’ qualifications have no impact on pupils’ performance in primary schools.

H03: There is no availability of qualified teachers in public primary schools.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The aim of the study is to determine the impact of teachers’ qualifications on pupils’ academic performance. The study will also be significant to stakeholders: i.e. teachers, learners, government, school policymakers, and curriculum planners.

First, the research will help to improve education standards not only in primary school, but at all levels of the educational system. This is because the study recognized the teacher’s importance and qualifications. As a result, the relevant authorities will need to handle manpower with care, put it to good use, and ensure its timely and regulated supply to schools.

This study will also facilitate collaboration between policymakers and government execution on policy formulation and policy relating to the funding, provision, control, and management of educational resources. Teachers and instructional materials are examples of this. Finally, it is important to note that the findings of this study will contribute to the strengthening of the teacher education process not only by awarding certificates to prospective student teachers, but also by providing them with knowledge and skills necessary for a good living.

1.6   The Scope Of The Study

This research work will be limited to examining the relationship between pupils’ performance and teachers’ qualifications, the impact of teachers’ qualifications on pupils’ performance in primary schools, and the availability of qualified teachers in public primary schools. Hence, the study will be limited to selected primary schools in Aba Abia State.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

The main limitations of this research, among others, include time constraints, as the writer only had a limited amount of time to complete it. Financial constraints and language barriers, in particular, were significant limiting factors in this research.

1.8 Definition Of The Study

Teacher: This is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone.

Learning: This is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, attitudes, and preferences.

Primary School: This is a school for children between the ages of about five and eleven.

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