Effects of ICT on Teaching and Learning Process in the 21st Century. A Case Study of Secondary Schools in Uyo
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Numerous specialists and researchers have done famous effort in the field of ICT in Tertiary Education. The review of restricted related researches on Evaluating the Impact of ICT for the twenty-first Century: As Modification Driving Tools for Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria may identify the key trends and gaps in these areas. Many studies have documented either the Evaluating the Impact of ICT for the 21st Century: A Change Driving Tools for Tertiary Education in Nigeria or Information and Communication Technology for Enhancement of Education Development in Northern Nigeria. One of the earliest studies by, Anyasi, et al., cited in State & Rasheed, 2014) examines the significance of information and communication technology for sustainable development. The author utilized both primary and secondary data to achieve relevant data from the respondents. Specially, structural questionnaire was employed to elicit information from the respondents. The findings reveal that information and communication technology is a necessary tool to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria. A more recent study by Sukanta, cited in State & Rasheed (2014) examines the role of ICT in tertiary institutions for the twenty-first century. Study looks into the possible areas where ICT has affected positively vis-a-vis the higher education, research and teaching. The study revered that ICT that lends itself to more learners-centred learning situations. In contrast, Ogunwale et al., cited in State & Rasheed (2014) conducted a study to find out the degree of perception, acquisition and utilization of wonders of ICT in Irewolede LGA in Ikire Osun Sate. Simple random sampling procedure was used to select fifty teachers as sample for the study. The authors also employed questionnaire as a datagathering instrument. The finding from the study reveals that ICT were grossly inadequate in all the secondary schools selected. According to the United Nations Educational Science and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), ICT includes ‘all types of technology used to produce, store, distribute, transfer and exchange information through means such as telephones, satellites, computers and the Internet, as well as equipment and services related to these technologies, these as video conferencing, online banking, electronic commerce. Yusuf, cited in State & Rasheed (2014) sees information and communication technology as an automated technology utilized for accessing, gathering, processing, presentation, and dissemination information. Similarly, Sukanta cited in State & Rasheed (2014) described ICT as the diverse collection of technological equipment and assets that used for the purpose of communication. However, the various ICT facilities available in colleges of education according to Ofodu, cited in Toyo (2017) include computers, overhead projectors, internet, fax machines, CD-ROMS, electronic notice boards, slides, digital multimedia, video/VCD machine, DVD players and so on.
1) Computer: A device manipulates data or information. It has the ability to hold, recover and process such data. One can utilize a computer for typesetting, browse the internet and send an email. It can also be used to prepare assignments, accounting, handle spreadsheets, database management, games, presentations and more.
2) Overhead Projectors: A projector is a variation of straightforwardness projector that used to show pictures to observers. The projector empowers a simple minimal effort intelligent circumstance for instructors. Training assets can be pre-imprinted on plastic sheets, whereupon the instructor can legitimately form utilizing a non-perpetual, launderable shading-checking pen. This spares time since the straightforwardness can be preprinted and utilized bluntly, instead of having materials formed physically before each class. The projector is commonly put at a happy with composing stature for the teacher and permits the teacher to confront the class, encouraging better messages between the students and educators. The extending highlights of the projector permit the teacher to write in an agreeable little substance in a characteristic composing position as opposed to writing in an excessively huge substance on a marker board and having to continually hold his arm out in midair to make on the marker board (Wikipedia, cited in Toyo, 2017).
3) Compact Disc: CD-ROMs are popularly utilized to distribute computer programs, including video, multimedia applications and games though any data can be stored (up to the capacity furthest reaches of a disk). Some CDs hold both PCs data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data, (for example, application or digital video) is only usable on a workstation (Wikipedia, in Toyo, 2017).
4) Digital Cameras: A camera that records images on an e-image sensor and takes video or photographs. Many of today’s cameras are digital cameras that are integrated into many devices ranging from cell phones that PDAs to cars.
5) Photocopiers: A copier or photocopier is a machine which makes paper duplicates of documents and other photographs quickly and cost-effectively. Most modern copiers use xerography, a heat-using dry process, a technology known as. (Copiers may also use other tools such as inkjet but xerography is popular in the workplace for copying The United States of America (USA) has an ICT sector, which is well grown. She is the world’s leading exporter of ICT goods and services, adding more than USD 122 billion to US GDP between 2011 and 2013 today
THE UTILIZATION OF ICTS TOOLS IMPROVES THE VALUE OF EDUCATION
ICTs will improve the quality of teaching in a few different ways: by extending pupils, by promoting motivation and dedication, by facilitating the acquisition of basic skills, and by enhancing the preparation of educators. ICTs are similarly evolutionary instruments that can elevate the step to a student-focused state when used properly.
- i) Encouraging learning: ICTs tools such as TV, videos and PC programs that consolidate content, sound, and vivid, moving pictures can be utilized to give testing and legitimate substance that will connect with the learner in the learning procedure. Furthermore, intuitive radio uses audio signals, songs, sounds, comedic creations and other entertainment shows to compel the learners to turn in and become acquainted with the exercises being transmitted. More than any other form of ICT, integrated internet available PCs can extend student motivation by consolidating the media resources and expertise of various ICTs with the ability to communicate with genuine individuals and engage in real opportunities.
- ii) Enabling the Attainment of background Knowledge: ICTs can be enabled to communicate basic skills and thoughts that constitute the development of higher-request figuring skills and creativity through drilling and practice. For example, instructive TV projects at Sesame Street use reiteration and help to display the letters in order, numbers, hues, shapes, and other simple ideas. Most early use of PCs was for PC-based learning (additionally known as PC-based guidance), which centered on the superiority of skills and substance through reiteration and help
iii) Improving Instructors Preparation: Utilize ICTs to increase access of education stakeholders and collaboration
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INSTANCES OF ICT-BASED UNDERTAKINGS
What sort of class activities fit to the utilization of ICT? Coming up next is a short manual for the absolute most basic employments of ICT in classroom interactions. a) Discovery: Learners can use ICT to discover data and increase new knowledge using a few different techniques. They can discover material on the net, or use, for example, Microsoft Encarta, an ICT-based reference book. We can discover data by removing it from a record organized by the teacher, and setting it to be accessible via ICT, such as archives created using Microsoft PowerPoint or Microsoft Word. They can discover information by talking to people elsewhere using email, such as learners in an alternative school or even in an alternative country. b) Processing knowledge: Learners may use ICT as a portion of an innovative process in which they need to think even more carefully on the data they may have on a specific subject. They may need to make calculations (e.g. using Microsoft Spreadsheet) or test the spelling and arrangement of sentences in a bit of composition (may use Microsoft Word document), or may allow a sequence of occasions to be rearranged (e.g. by re-requesting a PowerPoint sequence). c) Sharing information: Learner may use ICT to bring their effort into an extremely proficient setup. They will make archives and slide presentations to show what they’ve learned, and then deliver it to various learners; with their mentor via email to individuals around the world
The Contemporary Position of ICT in Nigerian Education
Right now, a PC is never again a particular tools utilized uniquely by researchers yet an instrument currently been reached out to education, banking, trade, industry, administration, organization wellbeing segment to make reference to a couple. Seweje, Owolabi, et al., (2013) takes note that Nigeria as a creating country is being more grounded continuously however one significant file of solidarity is the nature of education gave her populace. Today, in most created nations, about each part of human life including instruction is ICT driven. The instruction division in Nigeria despite everything lingers behind right now technology. In any case, the Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN) is diverting deliberate endeavours towards this course, National in schools of education has become a modus vivendi for present-day scholastics and learners such a great amount of National Universities Commission (NUC) and the Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), (Aturamu, Owolabi, Oyewole, & Oke, 2013). In any case, the utilization of ICTs inside the scholarly world particularly so that around is an inseparable connection among ICTs and educational procedures inside tertiary institutions establishments in the country. According to Edewor et al, cited in Toyo (2017), a more intensive glance at the current usage and advantages of ICT instruments in tertiary institutions in Nigeria uncovers the accompanying:
1) PCs and PowerPoint: Higher Institutions in the country across a variety been Computer use supported, including laptops and desktops. Academics and students now use those ICT tools as a way to type, process and store their work for later use. Before the advent of mobile devices such as iPhones, iPods, iPads, and tablets, academia in the 20th century relied heavily on laptops and desktops to produce, convert, and store data.. These tools therefore, enhance Teaching and research.
2) Electronic Mail: Numerous learners and lecturers presently depended on electronic mails to withstand collaboration and advance communication among them. Electronic messages have gotten so helpful to advanced education that it is nearly an abomination not to have one as a teacher or learner.
3) Electronics Peer Review: Peer reviewing is actually digitized, becoming a significant tool or practice that improves the quality of research and academic works. For example, junior researchers will electronically submit draft copies of their works to the email addresses of (their) senior colleagues / experienced researchers for review, while the latter can access those works on their computers or mobile phones, read and review the work to be sent back in the same way, electronically. This method saves both parties paper use, is cost-effective, timely and fast. This process has allowed the internet to take place and provides global connectivity for such interactions.
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