Impact of Covid-19 on the Academic Achievement of Students in Tertiary Institution

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Corona viruses are a family of viruses that cause symptoms ranging from the common cold to more serious disorders such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) (MERS). Originally, these viruses were passed from animals to humans. SARS, for example, was spread to people by civet cats, whereas MERS was spread to humans by a camel. Several corona viruses that have not yet infected people are circulating in animals. Corona virus gets its name from the Latin word corona, which means crown or halo. The seems to be encircled by a solar corona under an electron microscope. The novel coronavirus, found by Chinese officials on January 7 and dubbed SARS-CoV-2 since then, is a new strain that has never been seen in people before. Although human-to-human transmission has been established, nothing is known about it (Ajazeera, 2020). Fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing problems are all indicators of infection, according to the WHO. It may cause pneumonia, multiple organ failure, and even death in more severe situations. The incubation period – the time between infection and start of symptoms – is now estimated to be anything between one and fourteen days. Within five to six days, the majority of infected persons begin to display symptoms. Infected people, on the other hand, might be asymptomatic, meaning they don’t show any symptoms while having the virus in their bodies (Ajazeera, 2020). To combat the possibility of illness spreading, the government has taken a number of steps. Travel restrictions, forced travel quarantines, social distance, prohibitions on public gatherings, school and university closures, company closures, self-isolation, requiring individuals to work from home, curfews, and lockdown are examples of these methods (Bedford et al., 2020; Gostin and willy, 2020). Authorities in a number of nations have imposed a lockdown or curfew as a precaution against the virus’s rapid spread (Paital et al., 2020). These policies have a detrimental impact on business, education, health, and tourism across the globe (Pragholapati, 2020).

Although academic performance cannot be defined, a number of personality variables have been proven to have a significant role in it. In general, academic accomplishment refers to the degree or level of expertise achieved in a certain field of scholastic or academic activity. Academic or educational age, accomplishment quotients, or achievement quotients, are the most often used methods for determining the degree of Academic Achievement of students in a particular topic. Academic accomplishment, according to Gostin (2020), is defined as the information gained or competence acquired in school topics, as measured by test results or instructor grades.

According to Chen (2020), the term accomplishment refers to the pupils’ learning outcomes. The learning outcome modifies the pupils’ behavior patterns as a consequence of learning via various topics. Students’ learning has three primary effects: (1) cognitive, (2) affective, and (3) psychomotor. Learning does not reach the same degree in all three areas at the same time, he claims. In every topic, students may be at a higher or lower level. As a result, it is necessary to investigate the influence of Covid-19 on student academic progress at tertiary institutions.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The COVID-19 epidemic has impacted schooling at all levels (Nicola, 2020). Around the globe (in around 192 nations), educational institutions have either temporarily shuttered or imposed localized closures, impacting over 1.7 billion students (UNESCO 2020). Many institutions throughout the globe have postponed or canceled all campus events in order to reduce the number of people who are exposed to the virus. These measures, on the other hand, have greater economic, medical, and social consequences for both undergraduate and postgraduate communities (Nicola et al, 2020). Due to the suspension of classroom instruction at many colleges and institutions, undergraduate and graduate students may now benefit from online instruction (Sahu, 2020). This method of learning offers an option to minimizing either student-to-student interaction or student-to-lecturer contact (Pragholapati, 2020). Many students, however, do not have access to online education owing to a lack of either the means or the instruments as a result of the financial and digital devices (UNESCO 2020).

1.3 Objective of the study

The major objective of the study is on the impact of covid-19 on the academic achievement of  student in tertiary institution . Therefore the study will specifically examine the following:

  1. To examine if the covid 19 virus affected the CGPA of students in the tertiary institution.
  2. To find out if the covid 19 affected the exams score of students in the tertiary institution.
  3. To investigate the effect of covid 19 on the academic achievement of students in the tertiary institution.

1.4 Research hypotheses

The following hypothesis have been formulated for this study:

H0:  the covid 19 virus did not affect the CGPA of students in the tertiary institution.

H1: the covid 19 virus affected the CGPA of students in the tertiary institution.

HO:   covid 19 virus did not have an overall impact on the academic achievement of students in the tertiary institution.

H1:  covid 19 virus did have an overall impact on the academic achievement of students in the tertiary institution.

1.5 Significance of the study

This study will provide an insight into the effects of COVID-19 on tertiary student’s academic achievement

This study will help the school administrators to ascertain the level of damages the school’s close down has caused.

Furthermore, the study will again be helpful for researchers, students, and teachers. As it will contribute to the existing literature.

This study will be significant to schools administrators as they will benefit from the recommendation of the study.

1.6 Scope of the study

This study will examine if the covid 19 virus affected the CGPA of students in the tertiary institution. The study will also find out if the covid 19 affected the exams score of students in the tertiary institution. Lastly, the study will investigate the effect of covid 19 on the academic achievement of students in the tertiary institution. Hence this study will be delimited to Ambros Alli University Ekpoma, Edo state.

1.7 Limitation of the study

Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8 Definition of terms

Academic achievement: performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments

Tertiary institution:  a university or other post- secondary institution or higher educational institution

REFERENCES

Ajazeera. (2020). Coronavirus: All you need to know about symptoms and risks. Retrieved March 31, 2021 from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/01/coronavirus-symptomsvaccines-risks200122194509687.html

Bedford, J. P., Gerry, S., Hatch, R. A., Rechner, I., Young, J. D., Watkinson, P. J. (2020).COVID-19: towards controlling of a pandemic. Lancet. 395:1015-18.

Chen, Z., Huang, W. (2020). Further Evidence from Hospitalized Coronavirus Patients in Wuhan, China. A Descriptive study. Lancet, 395(10223): 507-514.

Gostin, L. O., Wiley, L. F. (2020). Governmental public health powers during the COVID-19 pandemic: stay-at-home orders, business closures, travel restrictions. JAMA. 323:2137–38. doi: 10.1001/jama.20 20.5460

Nicola, M., Alsafi, Z., Sohrabi, C., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C. (2020). The socioeconomic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID- 19): a review. Int J Surg. (2020) 78:185–93. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020. 04.018

Paital, B., Das, K., Parida, S. K. (2020). Inter nation social lockdown versus medical care against COVID-19, a mild environmental insight with special reference to India. Sci Total Environ. 728:138914. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138914

Pragholapati A. (2020). COVID-19 impact on students. EdArXiv [Preprint]. 1-6. http://doi: 10.35542/osf.io/895ed

Sahu P. (2020). Closure of universities due to Coronavirus Disease 2019. (COVID- 19): impact on education and mental health of students and academic staff. Cureus. 12:e7541. doi: 10.7759/cureus.7541

UNESCO. (2020). Education: From Disruption to Recovery. (2020). Retrieved March 31, 2021from https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse.

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