Implication of Security Challenges on Educational Activities in Niger State
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
One of the human security issues that Nigerians face is insecurity. Several countries have struggled to curb soaring rates of murder, armed robbery, and kidnapping, as well as drug trafficking, sex trafficking, illicit weapons trafficking, and a slew of other crimes that cause insecurity. In Nigeria, insecurity is manifested by a convulsive increase in both violent and non-violent crimes. (Okechukwu, 2011).
Armed robbery, assassination, and abduction for ransom are now devouring the country like a wave, instilling concerns and anxiety about public safety (Okechukwu, 2011). Nigeria has been on the global crime map since the 1980s, therefore the increase in insecurity has been constant (Dambazau, 2007) Poverty, bad parental upbringing, and avarice among the kids; get rich fast mindset, and an ineffective insecurity control model of national security, among other factors, have all contributed to decades of insecurity.
According to Osawe (2015), insecurity depicts the government’s inability to provide a secure and safe environment, stating that “increasingly lethal firepower is likely to cause higher levels of destruction; and that the augmentation of sophisticated weaponry creates a vicious cycle in which competing militias engage in an arms race to gain dominance in capability”. Such contests are often violent. There are no crime-free zones in Nigeria. The incidence and mortality rate, however, vary.
According to the Nigeria Watch Third Report on Violence in Nigeria (2006-2011), criminality is the second most common source of violence in Nigeria, and it is particularly prevalent in the south, particularly in densely populated cities such as Lagos and Port Harcourt. As a result, it is critical to continue to investigate both violent and nonviolent crimes in Nigeria in order to identify trends and patterns. Given the alarming growth in criminal activities in Nigeria, such as armed robbery, terrorism, and other associated crimes, the environment for lives, properties, and the conduct of economic operations is critical (Osawe, 2015). Scholars and social analysts have identified many reasons of insecurity. The availability of weaponry in the hands of unlawful users, especially civilians, is one of them, and it promotes insecurity in Nigeria.
There are numerous meanings of the idea of education. It is viewed as a racing course, as well as “the numerous means in which a society transfers knowledge, including factual information and professional skills, as well as cultural norms and values, to its members.” Formal instruction under the supervision of highly qualified teachers is also part of education, according to Macionnis, who was quoted in Azikiwe (2008). Education may also be defined as a process in which individuals are formally supported in developing their talents, not just for their own profit but also for the benefit of society as a whole, via correct direction and guidance (Okeke, 2003). To summarize, the goal of education is to help people become more successful and efficient at what they do while simultaneously contributing to the progress of society.
Education, according to Orikpe (2013), is essential in shifting individuals’ behavioural patterns in the desired direction. National security is the next topic that has to be clarified. Security is not a foreign concept; it has always been a priority in primitive societies. In a similar vein, Audu, Lukeman, and Mohammed (2014) argued that, since the end of the Cold War, there appears to have been a shift away from a state-centric approach to a broader approach that emphasizes individuals, in which national security encompasses human security, human rights, and national development. Iredia (2011) defines national security as a state’s ability to overcome obstacles. He went on to say that national security isn’t only about military strength, defense, or law enforcement; it also includes aspects like employment security, water security, and food security. National security may also be defined as a state or circumstance in which a country’s and its people’s most prized values are always safeguarded and improved (Radda, 2013).
The state or sensation of being secure from injury or danger is often referred to as security. It also entails defending and safeguarding learned values (Igbuzo, 2011). According to Oche (quoted Nwaneggo & Odigbo 2013), security refers to a country’s capacity to defend and develop itself, promote its treasured values and legitimate interests, and improve its people’s well-being. Internal security entails the absence of threats to one’s life and livelihood. Security, according to Audu, Lukeman, and Mohammed (2014), is any system designed to mitigate the most significant risks that hinder individuals from achieving their most treasured ideals. Insecurity indicates a condition of susceptibility to assaults, danger, or threats to a people, their properties, and treasured values, as well as the nation’s incapacity to defend its citizens, as may be concluded from the different definitions of security given above.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The insecurity in Niger is one to cause an alarm. Security challenges or Insecurity has for a long time troubled the state of activities in Niger. Despite how crucial of a challenge it is to not just Niger but also National security, it has been overlooked for a long time and insecurity continues, and this may lead to various negative consequences especially in the educational system of the indigenes of Niger. There is little research that has been conducted on this subject matter pertaining to Niger, thus, this study will fill the gap as well as provide insight as the urgent need to face and fight against insecurity in Niger, as it poses a huge threat to National security and migration
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The primary aim of this study is to determine the implications of security challenges on educational activities in Niger. Thus the following objectives;
- To determine the various security challenges facing Niger State.
- To determine the current state of security in Niger.
- To determine the implications of these security challenges on educational activities.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions guide this study;
- What are the various security challenges facing Niger State?
- What is the current state of security in Niger?
- What will be the implications of these security challenges on educational activities?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be significant as it will bring to more awareness on the state of insecurity in Niger. This study will be beneficial to the government as it will provide information on the implications of these security challenges on not just the educational activities of the citizens but also other sectors in the state. It will be beneficial to other researchers as it will provide them with information to be able to carry out further research.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will only cover the various security challenges in Niger and their implication on the educational activities in the state. It will only focus on Niger, therefore excluding all other areas in the country.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
During the course of this research, the researcher was limited by lack of necessary funds in going extra mile in this research and also insufficient time.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- SECURITY CHALLENGES:Securitythreats and challenges are actions or events that put at risk the material or identity basis upon which individuals, societies and states.
- EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES:Simply refers tothe activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill.