Influence of Parenting Model on Social Adjustment of Adolescent’s in Senior Secondary Schools in Calabar, Cross Rivers State



1.1  Background of the study

The child’s earliest experiences are acquired at home, which is the primary and main institution of learning. The kind of experience acquired here acts as a foundation and a strong foundation upon which other socialization agencies outside the family may later develop. A good house provides a sense of stability for the kid, as well as love and mutual respect among family members, acceptance, sharing duties, and pride in one’s parents and home (Fayombo, 2004). Parenting is a complicated activity that involves a variety of actions that operate together and separately to impact a child’s results. In Gonzalez et al. (2002), Baumrind (1967) defines a model of parenting as “patterns or configurations of parental activity.” Parenting styles, according to Kordi (2010), are a psychological concept that represents conventional parenting methods. As tough and difficult as child raising is, the work and problems it entails are far from finished, particularly as children reach adulthood. Difficulties are intimately linked to the form and function of the family in today’s society. Parenting is one of the most difficult and essential jobs that an adult must do. The way parents raise their children has an impact on their behavior and personality (Blondin & Cochran, 2011). Social competence, academic achievement, psychosocial development, problem behavior (Attaway, 2004), optimism, confidence, motivation, and attention difficulties are among the outcomes that the three parenting models may predict (Kordi & Baharudin, 2010). Parenting styles have a significant impact on cognitive development, social skills, and adjustment.

Many psychologists are interested in social adjustment, which is a result of social development. It is an essential indicator of psychological wellness. The most essential element of one’s development is social growth, which is gained via one’s relationships with others, particularly with parents, classmates, and teachers, and it is the criteria for evaluating social growth in terms of a person’s adjustment to himself and others. The individual will be unable to fulfill many of his or her fundamental requirements if he or she does not make the necessary adjustments. If a person is not compatible with society, he will feel alone. The parenting approach used by the parents has an impact on how successfully a kid adjusts socially. Parenting has an impact on teenage children’s academic performance, just as it does on their social adjustment. Previous research has demonstrated that parents’ parenting methods laid important foundations for their children’s growth and success. According to Jacobs and Hartup (2013), the parenting model is one of the most important factors in a student’s academic success. According to Spera (2005), the parenting paradigm stresses parents’ responses to their children and the methods they employ to compel compliance from their children. Baumrind (2005) classified parenting styles based on two dimensions: attentiveness and demandingness. According to Baumrind, responsiveness refers to the degree to which parents encourage self-expression and uniqueness in their children by demonstrating concern for and acceptance of their wishes. Kindness, independent support, and logical interaction are all examples of care and acceptance. Demandingness refers to the expectations that parents place on their children in order for them to be accepted into society (Baumrind, 2005). The expectations are enforced through watching and regulating the conduct of the children, as well as conveying the demands directly to them. Demandingness and responsiveness are divided into three categories: authoritarian, democratic, and permissive child raising. Each of these parenting styles represents unique patterns of parental beliefs, practices, and behavior, as well as a balance of responsiveness and demand. Parents have a dominating role in defining the standards of behavior that must be followed in an authoritarian home environment. These parents create settings that are well-organized and structured, with clear rules. The democratic parenting pattern is one in which teenagers are consulted on family issues, and parents give warmth, love, and autonomy to their children while still setting limits and being demanding. Permissive parents, on the other hand, relinquish the majority of authority to their children, making few, if any, restrictions and enforcing them regularly. They are inefficient and chaotic when it comes to running the home (Fayombo 2004).

1.2  Statement of research problem

There are a number of factors that go into parenting models. Parents, counselors, and schools have a genuine and long-standing interest in learning about and addressing the many issues impacting secondary school kids’ social adjustment. The incidence of failures, rebellious attitudes, indiscipline, and other issues in our senior secondary schools in Calabar, as well as student maladjustment, are of greater concern. This is because, in today’s world, schools must cope with a huge number of culturally illiterate or disadvantaged students. Lack of educational and recreational resources in childhood, authoritarian parenting style, and most frequently permissive attitude of parents have not given the motivating foundation for a wellbalanced social interaction and success in school work in the majority of instances. The kids are feeling more incompetent and disconnected from the school’s activities. In this context, the emphasis of this research will be on the impact of parenting models on adolescent social adjustment in senior secondary schools in Calabar, Cross Rivers State.

1.3  Objectives of the study

The primary objective of the study is as follows

  1. To examine what social adjustment means to the development of an adolescent.
  2. To find out how parenting model affects the social adjustment of adolescent in senior secondary schools.
  3. To examine how parenting model can  improve in other to aid the social adjustment of adolescent in secondary school

1.4  Research hypothesis

The following hypothesis have been formulated for the study

H01: parenting model does not affects the social adjustment of adolescent in senior secondary schools.

H1: parenting model does affects the social adjustment of adolescent in senior secondary schools.

H02: parenting model can not improve in other to aid the social adjustment of adolescent in secondary school

H1: parenting model can  improve in other to aid the social adjustment of adolescent in secondary school

1.5  Significance of the study

The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:

This study will examine influence of parenting model on social adjustment of adolescent’s in senior secondary schools in Calabar, cross rivers state

The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, parents, ministry of education, and academia.

1.6  Scope of the study

This study will examine influence of parenting model on social adjustment of adolescent’s in senior secondary schools in calabar, cross rivers state. Hence selected secondary schools in Calabar will be used as case study.

1.7  Limitations of the study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

1.8  Operational definition of terms

Influence: the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.

Parenting model: is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing

Social adjustment:  the degree to which an individual engages in competent social behavior and adapts to the immediate social context

Adolescent: the process of developing from a child into an adult.



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