Physical, Psychological and Social Impact of School Violence on Children
1.1 Background of the study
Children’s violence is a public health, human rights, and societal issue that has the potential to be catastrophic and expensive. [Biehler,2004] Globally, levels of violence against children are alarmingly high, with up to 1 billion children aged 2 to 17 years believed to have been victims of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse or neglect. [Jashari,2007] All kinds of violence against individuals under the age of 18 are considered child abuse, whether committed by parents or other caregivers, peers, partners, or strangers. This broad definition of violence include not just overt acts of violence, but also at least one of six major kinds of interpersonal violence that may occur at various times in a child’s development.
- Physical, sexual, and psychological/emotional violence are examples of maltreatment (including harsh punishment).
- Harassment (including cyber-bullying).
iii. Youth violence: happens most often in communal settings between friends and strangers, and is concentrated among children and young people aged 10–29 years.
Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse by an intimate partner or ex-partner is referred to as intimate relationship violence (or domestic violence).
- Sexual violence: non-consensual completed or attempted sexual contact, as well as non-contact sexual actions.
denigration, ridicule, threats and intimidation, discrimination, rejection, and other non-physical forms of hostile treatment. vi. Emotional or psychological violence: restricting a child’s movements, denigration, ridicule, threats and intimidation, discrimination, rejection, and other non-physical forms of hostile treatment. [Kushtetuta,1998] Violence may occur in a variety of settings, including families, orphanages, residential care facilities, the streets, the workplace, jails and other detention institutions, and, finally, schools. There were few research that offered age- and sex-specific prevalence estimates for teacher-inflicted physical violence. [Kodi,2004] Because children spend more time in the care of adults in schools and other places of learning than they do anywhere else outside of their families, school violence should be investigated for the physical, psychological, and social issues that may arise. These ramifications may be immediate or delayed, and they can continue for years after the original act of violence.
Children’s violence is prevalent, and it must be addressed in order to enhance children’s health and well-being. [Kodi,2004] All children and adolescents may be vulnerable to school violence; however, those who are vulnerable due to factors such as poverty, social status associated with ethnicity, linguistic or cultural differences, migration or displacement, and disabilities, as well as those who are orphans or come from HIV-positive households, may be targeted more frequently. [Unicef,2007] Teachers’ punishment may be more likely to target children and adolescents from stigmatized and marginalized populations; for example, refugee and migrant children may be punished for not speaking the language of instruction, and the UN Study on Violence against Children notes that in India, higher caste teachers are more likely to denigrate and humiliate children from lower castes. (Tamo,2006).
1.2 Statement of research problem
Violence in school can have a physical impact and it can cause psychological distress, permanent physical disability and long-term physical or mental ill-health. Physical im
pacts are the most obvious and may include mild or serious wounds, bruises, fractures, and deaths by homicide or suicide. Many school children have been psychologically abused in school and this has caused many of them to feel inferior, socially abused school children find it difficult to be sociable and relate well with other children, psychologically, some of the abused children have been subjected to psychiatric evaluation due to the stress of been bullied, it is against this back drop that the study on Physical, psychological and social impact of school violence on children will be discussed.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The primary objective of the study is as follows
- To find out what physical and psychological violence on children means
- To examine the impact of these violence on the well been of school children
- To find out why some school children bully others
- To find out ways school violence can be reduced or completely eradicated
1.4 Research questions
The following questions have been prepared for the study
- Are there physical and psychological violence on children?
- What are the impact of these violence on the well been of school children?
- Are there reasons why some school children bully others?
- Are there ways school violence can be reduced or completely eradicated?
1.5 Significance of the study
The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:
l This study will examine Physical, psychological and social impact of school violence on children
l The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, ministry of education, school management and academia.
1.6 Scope of the study
This study examines Physical, psychological and social impact of school violence on children. Hence it will be delimited to selected secondary schools in Lagos state
1.7 Limitations of the study
This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:
just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data
Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires
Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher
1.8 Operational definition of terms
School violence: all forms of violence that takes place in and around schools and is experienced by students and perpetrated by other students, teachers and other school staff.