This study surveyed Entrepreneurship Education in three Colleges of Education in Nigeria. Descriptive Survey was used and the objectives of the study were; to examine the content quality of vocational training given to the students; find out whether the NCE students can become self-reliant and freelance after school and if the students are familiar with the concept of freelance, self- reliance and entrepreneurship. A sample of 294 students and 24 lecturers from three colleges of education (College of Education Minna, Federal College of Education, Kontagora and College of Education – Federal Capital Territory Zuba, Abuja) were used. The instruments used for the study were interview, observation and questionnaire. The Data collected were analysed and results presented in frequency distribution and percentage, table of mean score and standard deviation. While chi- square was used to test the hypotheses. The findings of the study showed that the students were exposed to vocational skills in the relevant areas of Fine and Applied Arts. Some of the students may become self – reliant and freelance after school, some may not. Seventy five percent of the students are familiar with vocational concept of freelance, self – reliance and entrepreneurship. The study concludes that the importance and relevance of Fine and Applied Arts at the National Certificate of Education (NCE) level cannot be underestimated if the goals of a self – reliant nation must be attained as specified in the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) Minimum Standard. Also there cannot be effective vocational skills training where there are inadequate lecturers, art studios, materials, facilities and infrastructure; poor funding and negative attitude of parents, the students and college management towards skills training courses. As a result of the findings, it was suggested that government should re- structure the NCE Fine and Applied Arts curriculum so that the NCE will be tailored toward entrepreneurship to enhance vocational skills in the students. Finally it was suggested that students should be encouraged to be job creators instead of being job seekers which can be achieved by engaging them in an extensive industrial training programme in relevant industries, organisations and professional bodies.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – ii
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – iii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – vii
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – x
List of Appendices – – – – – – – – – xi
Abbreviations and Definitions of Terms – – – – – – xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 3
1.3 Hypotheses – – – – – – – – – 4
1.4 The aim and Objectives of the Study – – – – – 4
1.5 Research Questions – – – – – – – – 4
1.6 Justification of the Study – – – – – – – 5
1.7 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 5
1.8 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – – 6
1.9 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – 6
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 8
2.1 Historical Development of Fine and Applied Arts Education in Nigeria Tertiary
Education. – – – – – – – – – – 9
2.2 Historical Background of Colleges of Education Minna, Kontagora and Zuba – 12
2.3 Historical Background of Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria – 15
2.4 Concept of Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria – – – 16
2.5 Roles of Vocational and Technical Education in National Development – 18
2.6 Challenges of Vocational and Technical Education Programme in Nigeria – 19
2.7 Fine and Applied Arts Education as a Vocational and Technical Education
Programme- – – – – – – – – – 20
2.8 The Role of Fine and Applied Arts Education in the development of self-Reliance 22
2.9 The NCCE Minimum Standard and NCE Fine and Applied Arts Programme – 23
2.10 Summary of Literature Review and Uniqueness of the study – – 25
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 27
3.2 Research Design – – – – – – – – 27
3.3 Population and Sample for the Study – – – – – – 27
3.4 Research Instruments – – – – – – – – 28
3.5 Data Collection Procedures – – – – – – – 31
3.6 Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – 32
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 33
4.1 General Information – – – – – – – – 33
4.2 Vocational Acquisition Training of Students – – – – – 39
4.3 Students‟ option for freelance and self-reliant vocation – – – 41
4.4 Students‟ familiarity with the concept of freelance, self-reliance and Entrepreneurship – – – – – – – – 42
4.5 Results of Hypotheses Testing – – – – – – 43
4.6 Findings of the study – – – – – – – – 45
4.7 Discussion – – – – – – – – – 46
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – 48
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 49
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 49
5.4 Contribution of the Research to Knowledge – – – – – 50
References – – – – – – – – – 51
1.1 Background of the Study
The growing rate of unemployment and economic recession brought about the need for vocational skills among school graduates. Olatunji in Adetayo (2009) describes unemployment as a situation in which qualified and willing people cannot find any job and comments further that the educational system adopted in Nigeria is one of the causes of unemployment. This system, according to Iwere in Adetayo (2009), produces graduates who are white collar job seekers and does not prepare students for entrepreneurship skills and equip them for self – employment after school. The increase in the number of schools established and students‟ enrolment have, however made unemployment inevitable. The ever increasing number of unemployed graduates led to the inclusion of entrepreneurship programmes in the school curriculum by the government to stimulate self – employment among the graduates (Jongur, Kabutu and Abba, 2009).
The introduction of Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) in the Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE), was to expose students to entrepreneurship education that will facilitate self – reliance after graduation (National Commission for Colleges of Education, 2008). Fine and Applied Arts Education, as one of the Vocational and Technical Education courses, is a discipline in Nigeria Certificate in Education programme which gives trainees the opportunity to acquire appropriate skills, abilities, and competences to live and contribute positively to the development of the society. (Mamza, 2008). He further maintained that, it is a type of education referred to as functional education; that leads to acquisition of practical and applied skills towards job creation and self- reliance. Thus, using that parameter, the goals of Teacher Education at NCE level are to:
(i) produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of our educational system;
(ii) encourage the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers;
(iii) help teachers to fit into social life of the community and the society at large and enhance their commitment to national goals;
(iv) provide teachers with the intellectual and professional backgrounds adequate for their assignment and make them adaptable to changing situations;
(v) enhance teachers‟ commitment to the teaching profession and that, teacher education programme shall be structured to equip teachers for the effective performance of their duties. (National Commission for Colleges of Education Minimum Standard, 2012).
Ademola (2009) observed that, “Departments of Fine and Applied arts in the Colleges of Education should serve as the bedrock for the training of teachers who are to teach art at primary and secondary schools. This shall create in them conscious awareness, and shape their orientations for future endeavour”. A survey into the situation regarding the state of art at primary, secondary and particularly Colleges of Education leaves much to be desired. Idowu (2008), acknowledges that, despite the improvement so far recorded on Fine and Applied Art programmes, increase in number of Schools, Colleges of Education, Polytechnics and Universities offering art courses, students‟ enrolment still experiences a lot of problems that are yet to receive attention. Similarly, Mamza (2008) affirms that the image of art, artists and art educators has not been good in Nigeria, when compared to other subject areas like Medicine, Engineering, Law and many others. There is however, the urgent need to change this historical antecedent through the understanding of those factors affecting teaching, professional development and practices. It is on this basis that this study
examines the vocational output and coaching towards self-reliance in the Colleges of Education in Niger State and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja. It is hoped that, the findings of this study will provide an insight into current prevailing situations of entrepreneurship in the 21 Century.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The relevance of Vocational and Technical Education training to the success and gainful employment of youths in Nigeria as well as its development is faulty because it is not certain whether Colleges of Education in Niger State and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja give their students skill acquisition through vocational training so as to become self – reliant and becoming entrepreneurs. From observation, graduates of vocational schools are more theoretically than practically oriented which is contrary to the underlying principles of vocational education programme. Going by the philosophy of Nigeria educational system (FME, 2004) on vocational education, it could be readily established that students herrings of being self – reliant and future entrepreneurs is not fulfilled.
With reference to Fine and Applied Arts Education which eventually serves as the main body of this research, inadequate technical skills in the areas of painting, graphics, sculpture and textile design makes the programme a wasteful venture as the idea of being self – reliant, self – sufficient, and independent aspects of Vocational and Technical Education becomes a mirage. Consequently, Mustapha (2013) opined that Nigeria‟s aspiration to use education to achieve high level of socio- economic, technological and industrial development and making an individual and the nation self- reliant becomes difficult to attain. This statement thus, calls for an in-depth study of the cause and effect of the factors necessary to
bring about appropriate acquisition of entrepreneurship skills in the areas of Vocational and technical Education programme with particular reference to Fine and Applied Arts Education programmes.
The following null hypotheses are formulated for this study:-
HO1 There is no significant effect of input of vocational training on skills acquisition of
HO2. There is no significant effect of the input of students‟ vocational training and output of skills acquisition.
HO3. There is no significant effect of students‟ knowledge with the concept of self-reliance,
freelance and entrepreneurship.
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of entrepreneurship education in Colleges of Education Minna, Kontagora and Zuba. The objectives of the study were to:-
1. Examine the content quality of vocational training given to the students.
2. Find out whether the NCE students can become self- reliant or freelance after school.
3. Find out if students are familiar with vocational concept of freelance, self-reliance and entrepreneurship.
1.5 Research Questions
The following questions were developed for the study:
1. What is the content quality of vocational training given to NCE students at Minna, Kontagora and Zuba?
2. Can the students become self-reliant after graduation?
3. Do students understand the concepts of entrepreneurship, freelance and self- reliance in Fine and Applied Arts?
1.6 Justification of the Study
The rate of unemployment in the Nigeria society is on the increase yearly, with few office jobs available to absorb the teaming graduates from different institutions of higher learning. Also, the long time neglect and challenges facing Fine and Applied Arts Education in Colleges of Education hindered effective vocational training. An effective Art Education is an integral part of productive activities which afford students the opportunity to explore the resources in their immediate environment (Nkom, 2006).There is the need to reduce the problem of graduates‟ unemployment through vocational skills training in areas of Fine and Applied Arts for entrepreneurship development and self-reliance of the students after graduation.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Government jobs or white collar jobs are no longer available, so training of students to become self-reliant and entrepreneurs is justified. Thus, the research will bring to the attention of experts in curriculum planning in Fine and Applied Arts for National Commission for Colleges of Education, Federal and State Ministry of Education on the need for a review of the existing curriculum to be more practically oriented. The research will also help in changing the lukewarm attitude given to Fine and Applied Arts by some Provosts of Colleges of Education to a proactive one in terms of making adequate provision for qualified art teachers, art materials and infrastructure for effective teaching and learning to take place.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study is on vocational skills acquisition and self-reliance. It covers three Colleges of Education in Nigeria. These were:
1. State College of Education, Minna.
2. Federal College of Education, Kontagora.
3. College of Education, Zuba, FCT Abuja.
These Colleges were purposively selected based on the fact that the students are from different states of Nigeria and they usually seek for employment in schools in Niger State and FCT Abuja, after graduation.
1.9 Theoretical Framework
The study used Context, Input, Process and Product (C.I .P.P.) model of Stufflebeam (2003) in Yusuf (2012). C. I. P. P. Model of curriculum evaluation stresses context, input, process and product evaluation. The model serves as a frame work that guides the conception, design, service – learning projects, provides feedback and judgment of the projects effectiveness for continuous improvement. This study used the model to understand the Vocational and Technical Education for entrepreneurship development in Colleges of Education as promulgated by the National Policy on Education (FME, 2004, 7, 40). The policy states that Vocational and Technical Education should include the study of technologies and sciences along with the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of our economic and social lives. And again the policy expects the programme to be a means of preparing students for occupational fields and for effective participation in the world of business. For this reason this study posits
any Vocational and Technical Education programme that provides anything short of optimum training and impact of necessary skills to individuals to become self- reliant economically stands deviant to the principles of the establishment of Vocational and Technical Education programmes. Thus the study focuses on context, input, process and product evaluation of three Colleges of Education (COE Minna, FCE Kontagora and COE Zuba) so as to examine the content quality of vocational training given to the students, find out whether the NCE students can become self – reliant and freelance after school, and find out if the students are familiar with vocational concept of freelance, self – reliance and entrepreneurship. The C. I. P. P. Model was used for a survey by American Society for Training and Development Members. Felix in 1979 adopted the model to evaluate and improved instruction in Cininnati, Ohio, School System. And Taiwan used the model to construct national educational indicator systems and their results were successful. (Zhang, Zeller, Giffith, Metcaff, Williams, Shea and Misulis, 2011). The evaluation model (C. I. P.P) emphasised “learning by doing” to identify corrections for problematic areas of a programme. The model helps to improved and not to prove a programme or project.
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